HIV/AIDS Antiretroviral Drugs Classification

There are seven major types of drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS. Called antiretrovirals (ART) because they act against the retrovirus HIV, these drugs are grouped by how they interfere with steps in HIV replication.

1. Entry Inhibitors interfere with the virus' ability to bind to receptors on the outer surface of the cell it tries to enter. When receptor binding fails, HIV cannot infect the cell.
  • Maraviroc (MVC). Brand name : Selzentry 
2. Fusion Inhibitors interfere with the virus’s ability to fuse with a cellular membrane, preventing HIV from entering a cell. • Enfuvirtide (T-20). Brand name : Fuzeon

3. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors prevent the HIV enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) from converting single-stranded HIV RNA into double-stranded HIV DNA―a process called reverse transcription. There are two types of RT inhibitors:

Nucleoside/nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTIs) are faulty DNA building blocks. When one of these faulty building blocks is added to a growing HIV DNA chain, no further correct DNA building blocks can be added on, halting HIV DNA synthesis.
  • Abacavir (abacavir sulfate, ABC). Brand name : Ziagen 
  • Didanosine (delayed-release didanosine, dideoxyinosine, enteric-coated didanosine, ddI, ddI EC). Brand name : Videx, Videx EC (Enteric Coated) 
  • Emtricitabine (FTC). Brand name : Emtriva 
  • Lamivudine (3TC). Brand name : Epivir 
  • Stavudine (d4T). Brand name : Zerit 
  • Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Brand name : Viread 
  • Zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT, ZDV). Brand name : Retrovir 
Non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) bind to RT, interfering with its ability to convert HIV RNA into HIV DNA
  • Delavirdine (delavirdine mesylate, DLV). Brand name : Rescriptor 
  • Efavirenz (EFV). Brand name : Sustiva 
  • Etravirine (ETR). Brand name : Intelence 
  • Nevirapine (extended-release nevirapine, NVP). Brand name : Viramune, Viramune XR (extended release) 
  • Rilpirivine (rilpivirine hydrochloride, RPV). Brand name : Edurant 

Marijuana Tincture for Medicinal Treatment

Cannabis for treatment by means of smoked as a cigarette would risk respiratory tract irritation and difficulty in regulating dose. Although today there are pharmaceutical cannabis products that allow people to use marijuana without inhaled, namely marijuana in pill form that is famous for its trademark Marinol, but Marinol pills work very slowly. Marinol works with poor absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and the failure to incorporate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cannabinoids found in plants and cannabis extracts. In addition, the price of the products of pharmaceutical drugs in the future will be shot up uncontrollably.

Marijuana Tincture is longstanding. Marijuana tincture is an extracted marijuana which extracting by using alcohol. How to make it easy and very cheap. Marijuana Tincture contains 80 kinds of essential cannabinoids, as Marinol only contains 1 cannabinoids. Some cannabinoids such as cannibidiol (CBD) can reduce the psychoactive effects of THC while improving overall effectiveness.

Marijuana Route of Admministration 

The best way to use marijuana tinctures are sublingually. In this way, the dose or the titration can be easily controlled by counting the number of drops under the tongue where the drug can be rapidly absorbed into the arterial system and quickly enter the brain and the human body. Patient medical marijuana tinctures typically use a few drops, then wait for the desired medical effect and re-feeding if necessary. Marijuana tinctures can be fragranced to make it more palatable. Marijuana tinctures good if packaged in a dark bottle and stored in the refrigerator, containing 75% ethanol, therefore tinctures quite safe from bacteria contamination or other biological matter. Prevent plastic container because ethanol can dissolving some free vinyls inside the plastic.

Differences Between Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Sativa

The difference between Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Sativa:
The leaves are thick and short = INDICA
The leaves are thin and Length = SATIVA

 Cannabis Indica

Indica has higher CBD than THC levels, this type has a very high dose. The yields are usually higher than Sativa, and shorter growing season. Which is better for growing indoors, because they do not get high.

Sativa, THC is higher than the CBD, this kind of soaring growth, the yields  typically lower than Indica, but very powerful. for example: Thailand Sativa grows taller and has a longer flowering time, so they are more suitable for outdoor use.

Sativa's typically take longer to germinate and flowering, and they grow thinner then gave birth indica.

Cannabis Sativa

Indica is more widely used for relaxation, effective for anxiety, pain, nausea, appetite stimulation, sleep, muscle spasms and tremors. While the types of Sativa more stimulant, effective in stimulating appetite, reduces depression, migraine, pain and nausea.


No matter how much time has passed, and fashion moods changed the way we use lipstick, its basic formula always remained the same. Lipstick is made of dyes and pigments in a fragranced oil-wax base that can easily be applied to our lips. Some of the few important properties of lipsticks are its color, opacity, fragrance, and dryness.

Lipstick Raw Materials 
Before making lipstick, ingredients must be chosen. The primary ingredients of every lipstick are waxes, oils, and pigments, but many other substances can be introduced into the mix that will enhance certain parts of the final product and add it some specific new features such as fragrance, longevity and gloss.

The wax used usually involves some combination of three types : beeswax, candelilla wax or the more expensive carnauba. Wax enables the mixture to be formed into the easily recognized shape of the cosmetic. Oils such as mineral, caster, lanolin, or vegetable are added to the wax.

Some of the most common secondary ingredients are preservatives (to ensure longer shelf life), alcohol (solvent for other substances), fragrance (oils and waxes can sometimes have their own smell and taste, which needs to be eliminated), antioxidant and others wide vaiety of other ingredients can also be included to make the substance smoother or glossy or to moisten the lips.

Lipstick tube
The tubes that hold lipstick range from inexpensive plastic dispensers for lip balms to ornate metal for lipsticks. Sizes are not uniform, but generally lipstick is sold in a tube 3 inches (7.6 cm) in length and about .50 inch (1.3 cm) in diameter. The tube has two parts, a cover and a base. The base is made up of two components, the twisting or sliding of which will push the lipstick up for application.

Description of Machinery in Lipstick Manufacturing 
  1. Mixing Machine
  2. Seizing Machine
  3. Grinding Machine: Tri-Roller Rolling Machine and Successive High speed Moleculized Instrument – wet model 
  4. Heating Mixing Machine for pearl ointment 
  5. Mold Sets 
  6. Filling Machine: Basic Type(conventional), Plate Type. Semi-Automatic Type, Fully Automatic Type 
  7. Mold Releasing Machine By Air Blowing Machine 
  8. Box Folding Machine 
  9. Cartoning Machine 
  10. Carton Tapping Machine 

Stability Testing in Cosmetic

Cosmetics are mixtures of chemicals that mostly aren’t supposed to react with each other.The purpose of stability testing cosmetic products is to ensure that a new or modified product meets the intended physical, chemical and microbiological quality standards, properties as well as functionality and aesthetics when stored under appropriate conditions.

Each manufacturer should design their own stability testing program such that it is economically reasonable and efficiently addresses the testing required. Thus, specific tests may be developed in order to address new or unusual technologies, or to be adapted to products having extended shelf lives. Stability tests can be conducted in real time or under accelerated conditions and should address the stability of a product under appropriate conditions of storage, transport and use.

There are times when you need to do stability testing. Here is most important times to conduct a stability test. 
  1. New prototypes. When you make a new formula and are satisfied with the way it performs, you’ll want to do a stability test to ensure that it will stay together. 
  2. New raw materials. Eevery time you have to change the fragrance, color, or other raw material in a formula, you’ll have to do a stability test to make sure there aren’t unacceptable changes (Also for new raw material source/or supplier). 
  3. New manufacturing procedure. Every changing in manufacturing process (e.g mixing time, temperature drying), do stability test. It could affect your formula. 
  4. New packaging. Cosmetic products change their look almost yearly so packaging is constantly being modified. You’ll have to determine if the formula continues to be compatible. Stability testing helps ensure that it is.

How do you stability test a cosmetic?
This is the basic format you can follow for conducting a cosmetic formula stability test.

  1. Make your batch. Calculate how much to make based on the number of samples you’ll be using for the test. Ideally, make 30-40% more than you’ll need. 
  2. Fill your samples. Ideally, you’ll have the correct packaging but don’t count on it. When appropriate, fill glass jars with the product along with the finished package. In stability testing, you want to do both glass and packaging if possible. The number of samples depends on how much testing your doing but at minimum you should have 2 samples for each storage condition. 
  3. Take initial readings. Once you have a sample filled test it for all the characteristics you’re going to evaluate later.
  4. Put samples at different conditions. Stability testing requires different temperature and light conditions.
  5. Evaluate the product. Samples should be evaluated at the following intervals. 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and 52 weeks. Only the RT, 37C and 4C samples will be evaluated after one year. The highest temperature samples and the light exposed samples only need to be evaluated for the first three test intervals. The evaluation tests should be the same ones you conducted when taking your initial readings. 
  6. Determine stability. After 8 weeks you can confidently decide whether your formula is stable or not.