Consumer attention to the security dye synthesis increased use of natural dyes. Blue dye can be used in the long term, lead to an increased use of natural blue color, especially in food and beverage industry. Use food coloring to note the stability in the knowledge of degradation processes, the optimization of production, packaging and storage. Such as to heat and light of a natural dye that is blue and gardenia blue, and indigo pycocianin recently conducted a study to staining solutions

Description Plants Producing Blue Natural Dyes

1. Indigo
Classification
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Nation: Fabales
Tribe: Fabaceae
Genus: Indigofera
Type: Indigofera tinctoria

Tarum (from Sundanese), tilapia, or indigo (Indigofera, tribal legumes or Fabaceae) is a plant producing a natural blue color. Marga Indigofera (indigo plant), large (approximately 700 species) spread throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and America most of the species growing in southern Africa and the Himalayas. Indigofera plants containing glucoside indikan. Indigo blue color is obtained from soaking the leaves (in quantity). The blue color produced by soaking the leaves during the night. After overnight will form a layer on top of the green or blue. This liquid is then boiled, then dried in the sun to dry. As the dye-producing plants, Indigofera planted in the highlands and as a secondary crop paddy land. Land should berdainase pretty good. If used as cover crops, Indigofera only be planted in the garden with little shade or without shade. This species enjoys a hot and humid climate with rainfall of not less than 1,750 mm / year. This plant is able to survive against pengenangan for 2 months. Indigo precursors in plants is indoksil, resulting glucoside indican, isatin esters B, where after both extraction and chemical modification of the complex of indigo dye.

Read More : Stability of Natural Dyes on Light Blue : Gardenia blue, Phycocyanin, and Indigo2. Gardenia
Classification
Division: Spermatophyta
Sub Division: Angiospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Nation: Rubiales
Tribe: Rubiaceae
Marga: Gardenia
Type: Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.

Resulting from the extraction of Gardenia blue Gardenia jasminoides fruit that consists of color iridoid glycosides and gerdenoside geniposide and formations that give rise to normal blue color. After extraction, geniposide hydrolyzed by B-glucosidase into glucose and genipin, by transforming the blue pigment in the reaction with the amino acid, glycine and lisin.Gardenia is one source of blue dye derived from nature. The phytochemical screening showed the leaves contain flavonoids, saponins, tannins error, and steroid / triterpenoid. Aside from being a plant pigment is also efficacious efficacious as drugs canker sores, fever medication, drug shortness of breath and high blood pressure medications.

3. Phycocyanin

Classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Cyanobacteria
Class: Chroobacteria
Order: Oscillatoriales
Family: Phormidiaceae
Genus: Arthrospira
Species: Spirulina platensis

Spirulina is a type of blue green algae, often found in brackish water that is alkaline. Spirulina is an aquatic plants, microalgae (Cyanobacteria) spiral-shaped, single-celled which have existed for 3.5 billion years ago, and has been consumed by the ancient Aztecs in Mexico since 5 centuries ago. Algae S.platensis spiral-shaped and have a thin cell and not webbed core. Tues S.platensis contain chloroplasts, kromatophora and pigment dispersed in the cytoplasm. Types of algae S.platensis small cell has a diameter of 1-3 microns with homogeneous cytoplasm. Spirulina is a dark green. This color is caused by a combination of chlorophyll (green), phycocyanin (blue) and carotenoids (orange). Different colors is to absorb energy from sunlight different.

Uses Blue Dyes
The use of natural blue color, especially in the food industry and food coloring, need to know the stability of knowing the degradation process, the optimization of production, packaging and storage of food coloring. Such as stability to heat and light of a natural dye that is blue and gardenia blue, and indigo pycocianin recently conducted a study to staining solutions.

Gardenia blue is now used as natural food colorants in china and korea. Gardenia blue color is found in addition to soft drinks navy blue, turquoise seen in jelly gum, hard candy, and the middle layer of sugar. All staining with blue gardenia showing good color stability when tested with the accelerated degradation of color.

Phycocyanin was applied in the form of care products that have a functional effect, used in coloring in China. Pikosianin shows a bright blue color in jelly gum and sugar coating, but this was found to denaturation on hard candy and can not be dissolved in the medium of soft drinks due to low pH. Staining gum jelly with pikosianin no nothing, this may be due to cloaking color with gelatin matrix. Staining gum jelly with pikosianin be allowed to change color when exposed to 3 x 105 lux for 24 hours. Staining pikosianin added to the gums arabic which dissolved a little color.

Natural Indigo is the oldest known dye, used as textile dyes and cosmetics of antiquity (though not used directly as food coloring). Indigo is rarely used in foods and beverages because of low solubility. This dye can be used for coloring in the middle layer of brown sugar, which is also used for coloring fabrics like blue drills.

Materials and Methods
A. Materials used
1. Gardenia blue solution in water, Marine Blue-WS
2. Powder containing 10% phycocyanin phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis and 90% gom arabica.
3. Powder indigo "36000-A/B/C/D Indigo"
4. MCT-oil (medium-chain-triglyceride oil)
5. Purified water

B. The method used
The method is often used in the making is as follows:
1. Making preparations for the dye solution
What do first is the provision of buffer solution of citric acid-Na2HPO4 to pH 3, 5, and 7 on the solution of gardenia blue. The concentration of dye required approximately 1.3 mg / ml to achieve the highest maximum absorbance of 0.8 to 1.0 at λ 596 nm. Subsequently the solution stored at 5 ° C, can be used up to 5 days, gojok before use. While the solution of citric acid-Na2HPO4 buffer up to pH 5 and 7 are given for the solution phycocianin. The concentration of dye required approximately 3.6 mg / ml to achieve value from 0.8 to 1.2 absorbance at λ 616 and 620nm maximum. Last solution stored at 5 ° C, can be used up to 3 days. Concentration phycosianin calculated based on phycosianin pure on the powder concentration (10%).

Furthermore, as much as 160 mg of indigo dissolved in 400 ml of MCT-oil using ultrasound at 50 ° C for 4 hours. Solution was placed in a dark place for 7 days to precipitate an excessive amount of indigo. As constant absorbance value at λ max 604nm, the solution is filtered using a funnel. Concentration was calculated by spectrophotometric method at λ = 604 nm using 8.5 x L / mol cm. Standard solution of indigo should be stored in a dark place at room temperature for use during the study.

2. Thermal Degradation
Thermal degradation to calculate the half-life measured with the temperature parameter. This can be measured by spectrophotometric method. The sample is heated in waterbath at the desired temperature. Gardenia blue degradation occurs at temperatures 60, 70, and 80 ° C for 8-48 hours, whereas phycocyanin degradation at 45, 50, and 55 ° C for 5 hours. Degradation of indigo at 90 ° C for 5 days. Changes in absorbance monitored at certain intervals each λmaks in the visible region, for gardenia blue at 596 nm, phycocyanin at 612-620nm (depending on the pH of the solution), and indigo at 604 nm.

3. Photochemical degradation
Phytochemical degradation was measured by giving radiation dyes with monochromatic light at 313nm and 600nm in a separate trial. Photodegradation levels were observed in any particular interval measurement method spectrophotometry using a Varian Cary 219 spectrophotometer at λmax. For experiments at 313nm, 5.0 ml of solution included in kuvet size 2cm. The solution presented monochromatic light from a high pressure Hg lamp 100 / 2, which is part of the row of optics, which includes a condenser light, heat filters, interference filters, shutter which is connected to an electronic timer, and a lens that focuses light into the thermostat (25 , 0 +0.5 ˚ C) cell holder.

For experiments at 600nm, 3.0ml solution included in kuvet size 1cm. The solution presented monochromatic light from a Xenon lamp Visilight 300F, with a monochromator and focused into a cuvette in a diode spectrophotometer for spectral measurements at the desired distance. Ferrioxalate light intensity is determined by actinometry (313nm) based on the method of Hatchard and Parker or by Reinecke salt actinometry (600nm) based on the method of Wegner and Adamson.

4. Accelerated degradation of light
Accelerated degradation of light from the dye solution made using SUNTEST CPS and light cabinet equipped with a xenon lamp associated with ventilated cooling YETI PLUS. Intersitas light of 480 W/m2, the same as 328,000 lux. Degradation follow a fixed interval by spectrophotometric measurements using a Hewlett-Packard HP 8453 spectrophotometer.

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