• Binder can be a sugar and polymer.
• Natural polymers binder: starch, gum (Acacia, tragacanth, gelatin)
• Synthetic polymers binder: PVP, methylcellulose, ethylcellulosa, hidroxypropylcellulosa\
• Can be used in dry or wet granulation. Wet method requires less material.\
• The amount of binder solution required for the 3 kg of filler are listed in the table

1. Starch (Amylum)
• Can be used as a filler, binder, and the disintegrant
• In the form of starch amili 5-10%
• Preparation :suspend starch 1:1 / 2-1 in cold water, add boiling water 2-4 times with constant stirring until the starch that can expand into a transparent diluted
• Another way: a suspension of starch in water heated
• Contains 11-14% water content, will cause the tablet disintegrated quickly - The making must be careful in order to obtain a good starch, is not hydrolyzed, and not making
• Best Use of a maximum of 30%. If a large dose of active ingredient, starch was replaced with a better disintegrant, namely Avicel.
• Tablets containing a high concentration of starch tablets showed a fragile and difficult to be dried
• Unmodified starch does not have good compressibility properties and have a great friability, and the occurrence of capping in tablets if used in large quantities

As disintegrant:
• Usage: 1-20%, is the most commonly used disintegrant
• Mechanism of action by forming hydrogen bonds during compression and rupture or expand when water entered Mell pore (capillary)
• Use is tailored to the type of starch, compression pressure, and water content of the mass
• Caution: before use, starch must be dried at a temperature of 80-90C to remove absorbed water

2. Starch 1500
• Can be used as a binder in wet & dry granulation, and disintegrant
• Starch 1500 containing 20% maximum water-soluble fraction that functions as a binder while the rest are as disintegrant
• Starch 1500 takes ± 3-4 times as much starch amylum to produce tablets with the same hardness
• Should not be used as a filler in wet granulation because it will produce a gel that serves as a powerful binder
• As disintegrant, can be added in dry state, in the outer phase.
• The good flow is directly compressible starch
• Can be compressed own, but if mixed with 5-10% of drugs requires additional lubricant (eg, 0.25% colloidal silicon dioxide)
• Containing 10% moisture and cause the tablets become soft when combined with magnesium stearate> 0.5%, stearic acid used as a substitute

As disintegrant:
• Represents good disintegrant and added to the dry mixture (in inner phase or outer phase in dry granulation or direct compression, or in the external phase on the wet granulation method)
• Caution: should not be given to the wet mass

3. Pregelatinized Starch
• It is a starch that has been cooked and dried again. Can be used as a substitute for starch paste is more easily soluble in warm water without heating
• Can be added to dry into a powder and then moistened with water to form moist mass



4. Gelatin
• Used at a concentration of 5-10% as much as 1-5% of the formula
• It is rarely used, replaced by PVP, MC. Tends to produce hard tablets and requires active disintegrant
• Can be used to compound that difficult to bind
• Weaknesses: vulnerable to bacterial and fungal
• If you still needed a stronger binder, can be used a solution of gelatin in water 2-10%, which is made with gelatin hydrate in cold water for several hours / overnight and then heated to boiling, the solution must be kept warm until gelatin is used because it will be a gel at refrigeration

5. Sucrose solution
• Establish a hard granule, hardness set of sucrose concentrations 20-85%
• Very good as a bearer of soluble dyes and produces a variety of colors
• Used to granulate tribasic phosphate binder which generally require a more cohesive than amylum starch; on ferrous sulphate tablets, acting as a binder and protective oxidation ferrosulfat
• Other compounds which can be a sugar fastening: aminophylline, asetopheretidin, acetaminophen, meprobamate

6. Acacia solution
• Used at a concentration of 10-25%; to reduce mephenesin (large doses and difficult to granulate)
• Generate a hard granules but does not harden in storage
• Weaknesses: can be contaminated with microbes
• Sometimes the liquid lubricant plus PEG 6000 to help the tablet compressing and tablet disintegration

7. PVP
• Trade name: Kollidone or Plasdone
• Inert, water-soluble and alcohol, used in concentrations of 3-15%, slightly hygroscopic, does not harden during storage (good for chewable tablets)
• Effervescent Tablets can be made using PVP in anhydrous ethanol. Do not use anhydrous isopropanol for leaving the smell of the granules.
• The concentration of 5% produces good compressibility of powder sodium bicarbonate and citric acid so that the tablet to react faster and faster dissolution.
• PVP is good for chewable tablets in particular for aluminum hydroxide, Mg (OH) 2

8. Cellulose
a. Methyl cellulose
• 1-5% water solution, a solution of 5% produces the same hardness with amylum starch
• Can be used to granulate soluble / insoluble powder, a good binder for the excipients such as lactose, mannitol, and sugar
• Advantage: can be compressed quickly, do not harden on storage
b. CMC Na
• 5-15%
• Incompatible with Mg, Ca, Al, and their salts
• Generate more fragile granules of PVP is a tendency to harden; tablets generally have a longer disintegration time
c. Ethyl cellulose
• Solution in alcohol. Low grades are used as binder 2-10% in ethanol
• Can be used for powders that are difficult to granulate: acetaminophen, caffeine, meprobamat, ferofu, arat, and can be used as a non-binding water to powder which is not waterproof like ascorbic acid
• Can slowing the disintegration time

9. Polyvinyl alcohol
• water soluble, like acacia but not very susceptible to bacterial
• Establish a softer granules from Acacia, yielding faster disintegration of tablets and did not harden in storage

10. PEG 6000
• As an anhydrous binder, where water and alcohol can not be used
• PEG 6000 is a white solid that melts at 70-750C and hardened at 56-630C

11. N-HPC (Nisso-HPC)
• Soluble in water and organic solvent alcohol, propylene glycol, methylene chloride, acetone and chloroform. If used as a solvent in the wet granulation N-HPC dissolve in water or alcohol.
• Preparation :
a. Dissolve in water
- N-HPC added bit by bit into the water while stirring strong
- 20-30% of water heated to 600C and the N-HPC added slowly while stirring. After that, add the remaining water. In this way more rapid dissolution.
b. Dissolve in organic solvents 


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