Bronchitis is a respiratory illness, characterized by mucus hypersecretion and chronic productive cough repeatedly for at least 3 months per year or at least 2 consecutive years in patients who have no known cause. Various efforts have been used by the community in tackling this disease, one of them is take traditional medication.

One of the plants can be used for the treatment of bronchitis is cubeb plant (Piper cubeba Lf). Piper cubeba can be used to treat coughs, bronchitis, gastrointestinal diseases and rheumatism. Cubeb also useful as a stimulant expectorant in bronchial mucous membrane. Indonesian society has also long used cubeb as traditional medicine. Nevertheless the effectiveness and quality of traditional medicine is still a lot that has not been tested, mainly related to a matter of convenience. It is very important especially for a relatively long treatment such as bronchitis, among other things to prevent boredom in patients to consume traditional medicine and dosage errors that can result in unwanted effects.

The above problems can be overcome with the innovation of new dosage form by utilizing existing technology. Among them is the formulation in dosage form lozenges. Lozenges is a type of stocks that have the taste and sucked in by the wearer mukus. This preparation is very suitable for the treatment of infections in the mouth or throat.



Active Ingredient in Piper cubeba
The number of properties of the fruit content cubeb caused by chemical compounds which vary widely. Some of the content of chemical compounds from the fruit cubeb been reported among the essential oil (10-20%), kubebat acid (1%), resin (2.5 to 3.5%), kubebin (0.3 to 3%), piperine (0.1 to 0.4%), in addition to some saponins and flavonoids.

Active compounds that may have activity as an expectorant in Piper cubeba is cubebin. Cubebin is a lignan found in many fruits cubeb. From research conducted Wahyuono note that kubebin have activity as tracheospasmolytic that can be useful for the treatment of asthma. Based on research Wahyonob (2003) found that 2 active compounds as the main tracheospasmolytic dihydroxycubebin and cubebin.

Lozenges Tablet of cubeb Extract (Piper cubeba)
Lozenges are solid dosage containing one or more ingredients, usually with a flavorful and sweet ingredients that can make or crushed tablet slowly dissolves in the mouth. Lozenges are generally intended for the treatment of local irritation or infection of the mouth or throat, but can also contain active ingredients intended for systemic absorption after swallowing.

Lozenges is a dosage form which is used as a local anesthetic, various antiseotik and anti-bacterial, demulsen, astringent, and antitussives. Election cubeb fruit extract formulation in the form of lozenges is very suitable when applied for the treatment of bronchitis which requires a relatively long time. With good taste and fun it will improve patient compliance in consuming the drug. In addition, the presence of these dose formulations used extracts can also be quantified precisely so that the effects of 6 and the resulting security would be better than if only traditionally consumed as in the form of herbal medicine.

Formulation
Formula lozenges cubeb (Piper cubeba) per tablet 600 mg:
Cubeb fruit extract (Piper cubeba) 250 mg
Lactose 200 mg
Mannitol 120 mg
Gelatin 10% (w / v) 25 mg
Talc 5% 5 mg

Lactose is the filler of the most widely used because it does not react with almost any ingredients that are used either in the form of hydrate or anhydrous. While mannitol is used as filler material as well as a sweetener that has a delicious taste in the mouth and relatively non-hygroscopic. In these lozenges used a combination of filler in the form of lactose-mannitol with the aim to reduce production costs because mannitol is a sugar that expensive. Mannitol is used for multi-vitamin tablet formulation is hygroscopic, and low in calories. Filler which taste sweet to enhance the taste or flavor extracts cover that may be less enjoyable.

Gelatin is used as a binder for the materials with one another to join when compressed into tablets. Gelatin in the manufacture of tablets containing concentrations of 2-7% of the tablet formula, the solvent used is water and usually in wet granulation is made solution gelatin, starch, or suspension. Lubricant materials used in the form of talc. This material prevents adhesion between the tablet and printer engine during tablet compression process. In addition to using materials like the above, it can also be added other ingredients to enhance the flavor of which include menthol flavorings. Taste is compatible with these lozenges formula because it has the effect of throat, so that appropriate for the treatment of bronchitis.

Process Manufacturing of Extract Tablet cubeb Lozenges (Piper cubeba)
The process of making lozenges starting from the preparation of materials such as fruit extracts cubeb. The extract obtained with quote cubeb fruit powder that has been dried by using percolation method and the liquid extract obtained extract was evaporated until it becomes thick. Method of manufacture of lozenges used are wet granulation, which according to material / active substances that are fluid.

The next step is mixing the condensed fruit extract cubeb with filler material, mixing is done by adding filler (lactose) into the thick extract until the mixture is obtained which is more dry. Then add the fill-sweeteners (mannitol), and gelatin binders that have been made starch with water. If the mixture has been homogenized, then the next step is to do the sifting, so as to produce granules with certain size. Granules obtained at a certain temperature and then dried to produce granules with appropriate humidity and not too dry.

Granules that have been dried and then sieved again with a suitable sieve, then add lubricant materials (talc) and mixed until homogeneous. The granules are then compressed with a certain pressure on tablet compressing machine. After the creation process is complete, it can proceed with testing the quality and physical properties of tablets which aims to find out whether the formula that made have been optimum. Some tests include testing the disintegration time, hardness and friability of tablets, uniformity of weight and taste test responses. Test taste response is very important because it relates to convenience in use, whether the tablet has a sense of the appropriate (good) or not.

Step-by-step making of these lozenges is very easy to apply and not too long, thus the production process will be cheaper. The materials used are easily obtained and relatively cheap except mannitol sweetener that has a heavy price. However this problem can be solved by adjusting the composition ratio of lactose-mannitol filler, so the use of mannitol can be suppressed as small as possible.

Some of the obstacles that may arise in the process of making these lozenges include the:
1. Capping and laminating
Capping is a situation where the top or bottom of the tablet partially or completely separated from the tablet. Laminating is the separation of the tablet into two or more distinct layers. Capping and laminatingi immediately visible after printing, but can also occur after one hour or one day. Capping and laminating occurs because because granules are too dry, high pressure, granules are too big, the engine speed is too high. This problem can be overcome by setting an appropriate tablet machine pressure and drying tablet that is not too long.

2. Peel and sticking
Exfoliation is the term used to describe the surface material from a tablet attached to and separated from the surface of the tablet by a punch. Annealing is a time expenditure of punch tablet produces the rough side. This situation is caused by too wet granules 8, less the amount of lubricant materials, punch that has been damaged, high humidity. This problem can be overcome by the addition of the proper lubricant materials and the reduction of granule moisture.

3. Mottling
Mottling is a state in which the distribution is uneven tablet color, with the presence of light areas and dark on a uniform surface. The cause of mottling is a different color of the drug with additional material.

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