Currently, many outstanding products quality detergent with various brands of the real from detergent raw materials are relatively similar, what distinguishes is the composition and additives. Detergents in its work has a unique ability to remove impurities, both soluble in water or insoluble in water. This is due to the detergent, especially the molecules of surfactant (surface active agent) that serves its lower surface tension of water so as to release the dirt on the surface of the material. One end of the surfactant molecule prefers oil, as a result of this section which penetrate the oily dirt. The other tip of surfactant molecules prefer water only, is what role the dirt loosened from the fabric and re-dispersing dirt so it does not stick to the fabric. As a result, cloth color can be maintained.
Physical Shape Classification of Detergents
Based on the physical form, detergents differentiated by:
1. Liquid detergent, liquid detergents generally similar to the detergent powder. What distinguishes only the physical form. In Indonesia liquid detergent to my knowledge this has not been used commercially, typically used for modern laundry using a large capacity washing machine with advanced technology.
2. Detergents cream, cream with a detergent soap dab almost the same but the content of the raw materials they are different formulas.
3. Detergent powder, detergent powder types are circulating in the community or used when washing clothes. Under the circumstances granulated, powdered detergents can be divided into two: detergent powder detergent powder hollow and solid. The difference form of granules the two groups was caused by differences in the manufacturing process.
A. Hollowed Detergent Powder.
Detergent powder has the characteristic grain hollow like a soccer ball is hollow inside. This type of hollow detergent granules produced by spray drying process (carburetion continued with the drying process). Advantages of hollowed detergent powder than compact detergent powder is a powder detergent hollow look bigger volume.
B. Compact powder detergent.
Granules form of solid powder detergent shapes such as balls, that is all part occupied by the solid granulated so as not hollow. Dense detergent granules are produced from dry mixing process (dry mixing). Lack of solid detergent powder was visible volume is not large so that seems a little.
Detergent Raw Materials
1. Active Ingredients
The active ingredient is the main ingredient of the detergent so that this material should exist in the manufacture of detergents. These chemicals can be either sodium lauryl sulfonate. Sodium lauryl sulfonate by several trade names with names texapone, FAME, luthensol, and neopelex. In functional materials has contributed to the increase in net power. The hallmark of this active ingredient has a lot of foam and gel form (paste).
This material serves as the fill of the overall raw material. Provision of filler material is intended to enlarge or expand the volume. The existence of this material in detergent viewed solely from the economic aspect. Detergent filler here using sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). Other materials as filler of detergent can use pyroposphate tetra sodium and sodium citrate. This material, powder, white in color and easily soluble in water.
3. Supporting Materials
One example of the supporting material is soda ash detergent (Na2CO3) in the form of white powder. This supporting material to function as increase cleansing power. The existence of this material in the detergent should not be too much, because it can cause a heating effect on the hands when washing clothes. Other supporting material is STPP (sodium tripoly posphate) which also fertilising plants. This can be proven water poured into the former laundry plant will become fertile. This is caused by the phosphate content which is one element in certain types of fertilizer.
4. Additional Material (additive)
This additional material should not actually exist in the manufacture of detergents. However, producers looking for new things to boost the value of the detergent itself. One example of this additional material is CMC (Carboxyl methyl cellulose). This material is a white powder that serves to prevent dirt back into the clothes.
5. Perfume Ingredients
The existence of these fragrant ingredients of great importance, because a good quality detergent with perfume when give one would be fatal to the sale. Perfume for the detergent forms a yellowish liquid.
2. Na2SO4 to taste
3. NaHCO3 25%
4. NaCO3 7%
5. STPP / CMC taste
6. Perfume to taste
Equipment needed: container, timber mixer, and filter detergent
How to Make Detergents
1. Texapon + NaHCO3 stir
2. (1) + Na2CO3 stir
3. (2) + Na2SO4 stir
4. (3) + STPP / CMC mix
5. Sifted and dry
7. Ready for the market
The advantages of this Detergent
- Power strong net or clean stubborn dirt.
- Soaked clothes for days would not cause the smell.
- Save water because only one rinse.