We can found local or import fruits easily at the supermarket, fruit store or the fruit stalls on the roadside. Did you know that those fruits have long circulated from the start harvesting but still look fresh? Did that fruits are in the process of waxing?

Waxing other than to improve the appearance of fruit skin, waxing aims to extend the shelf life, preventing shrinkage of fruit weight, close small cuts or scratches, prevent mold, prevent decay and maintain color.

Wax that is used for coating must meet several requirements, namely: do not affect the smell and taste the fruit, quick drying, not sticky, not easily broken, shiny and smooth, thin, does not contain toxic, cheap and easily obtained.

Utilization of waxing on new fruit at harvest, usually done on the fruit or to fruit traders Export / Import. Special Export / Import, fruit yields are likely preserved former first before being sent to the country of destination. Typically, the fruit is coated with a type of wax will inhibit evaporation during the process of decaying fruit. Wax layer is usually found on imported fruits such as oranges, apple, pear, mango etc..



Fruit Coating Materials (Fruit Waxing Ingredients/Formula)
With a wax coating on fruits and vegetables has been conducted since 1920. Where the material of the candle is made not from chemical processes rather than natural materials such as Carnauba Wax, Palm leaves Brazil, Candellia Wax, Euphorbia kind of plant, type of food grade shellac is made from a kind of beetle in India and Pakistan. In America these wax material must be certified security (for consumption) by a special agency to take care of consumption that is FDA (Food and Drug Administration).

Layer of wax which is widely used on fruits derived from natural ingredients (non-petroleum-based) and safe to use for all types of food.

Formula (Composition) of Fruit Waxing
1. Vlava cera (beeswax)
2. TEA
3. Oleic acid
4. Water

Equipment needed: Containers and stirrer

Manufacturing :
1. Certain comparative figures mixed wax + TEA + Oleic acid mix
2. (1) + Water mix
3. Packaged and ready for use directly in

Before waxing, fruits washed clean with a soft sponge to remove dirt on the skin surface, then drained to dry. The most popular technique or commercial is spraying or dipping. After waxing, fruit drained before storing or shipping. Waxing usually coupled with low temperature storage to extend shelf life.

The treatment of a given layer of wax fruit before consumption should be washed with soap. Without soap, it is impossible layers of oil on the wax coating can wear off. Once washed, the fruit must be dried. If it is dry, store in refrigerator. Wrap in plastic with a portion of fruit as needed. Plastic storage should not be frequently opened the lid, so the fruit will be fresher for longer.

WAXING TECHNIQUE
Giving a candle on horticultural products can be made by foaming, spraying, dipping or application of. Foaming is a satisfying way of giving candles as it leaves a very thin layer of wax on the fruit. A foaming device placed above appropriate brush and wax emulsion is given to fruit and vegetables in the form of foam. Spraying tends to squander the wax, wax can be recovered in the pan - pot catcher. Dyeing is done by immersing the fruit or vegetable dye in the tank containing wax emulsion for 30 seconds. Emulsion provided with a wheeled conveyor mounted brushes

Thick layer of wax should be as optimal as possible. If the layer is too thin then the effort in impede respiration and transpiration are less effective. If the layer is too thick then it is likely almost all the pores of the commodity will be closed. If all the pores closed so will result in the occurrence of anaerobic respiration, the respiration that occurs without the use of O2 so that the cells make reforms in the fruit body itself which can lead to decay more quickly than normal circumstances. Providing a layer of wax can be done by blowing, spraying, immersion (30 seconds) or application of.

waxing used to prevent water loss 30 - 50% of the general condition. With the higher concentration of wax covering the surface of the water loss due to fruit transpiration can be prevented so that the percentage of small weight losses. The higher concentration of wax result in increasingly smaller air cavity so that respiration and the oxidation process increasingly slow and hampered the process of chlorophyll degradation, thereby changing the color of the fruit more slowly.

The following is an optimal concentration of wax emulsion on several horticultural commodities are given in Table 1. as follows:

Optimal concentration of wax emulsion on several horticultural commodities
Commodities                        Concentrations optimal wax (%)
Avocado/Apple                               48
Chili                                                    12
Orange                                               12
Potato                                                12
Mango                                                6
Pineapple                                            6
Papaya                                                6
Banana                                                9
Carrots                                              12

Wax coatings for fruits in general use beeswax which is made in the form of wax emulsion with a concentration of 4% to 12%. While the concentration of wax emulsion which is ideal for avocado is 4% wax emulsion. To create a layer of wax 4% done mixing the wax emulsion 12% with 2 parts water. Here is the basic composition of 12% wax emulsion is given in table 2. as follows:


Basic composition of 12% wax emulsion


Material                                   Composition
Bees Wax/Trietanolamin        120 grams
Oleic acid                                    20 grams
Hot water                                  820 grams

Wax are esters of long chain fatty acids with long chain monohydric alcohol or sterol. Is a natural beeswax candle commercial which is the result of honey bee secretion (Apis mellifica) or other bees. Honey is extracted with centrifuge comb honey can be used again, while those extracted by pressing cause hives were destroyed. Nests that were destroyed can be used as a candle or can be made for new nests. The result of pressing the remaining nests were destroyed and washed and dried, then heated so that a candle or night. Beeswax is generally used as an ingredient in cosmetics, candle makers of fuel, and maintenance industries. Candles are yellowish-white to brown, melting point 62.8-70 ° C and the weight of its kind 0952-0975 kg/m3. Beeswax widely used for horticultural commodities because of easily available and cheap. Carnauba candle wax is obtained from a palm tree (Copernica Cerifera). Meanwhile, spermaceti wax is wax obtained from the whale's head (Phesester macrocephalus). Candles are widely used in medicine and cosmetics industries.

The combination of cold temperature treatment (15-18 o C) to extend the shelf life of fruit for 7 days. One example is the orange pacitan, fruit freshness can be maintained by providing a layer of wax 6% after being stored at low temperature.

Wax emulsion which can be used as a wax coating materials must meet several requirements, which do not affect the smell and taste to be coated, easy to dry and not sticky when dry, is not easily broken, shiny and slick, does not produce a thick surface, easily available, cheap price, and most importantly, was not toxic.

How to wax coatings for fruits
After fruit harvest, fruit maturity sorted well with the uniform, then the fruit washed with clean water, cleaned by brushing to remove any dirt on the skin where the course of this process will eliminate a layer of natural wax and drained. Then the fruit is dipped into a solution of Benlate candle with a particular concentration for 1 minute, then drained again. Furthermore, the fruit is dipped into wax emulsion for 30 seconds, drained and aerated to dry and the coating evenly. Candles are used to polish around half a kilogram and can be used to polish up to about 160,000 pieces or about 2 drops of wax is enough to coat 1 piece.

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