Fatty material Used in Lipstick

True fats are very rarely used in modern lipstick, although at one time or lard and other fats are found in large numbers.
Example: cocoa butter, petrolatum, glyceryl monostearate, lanolin, lecithin.

This oil is to determine the whole nature of the lipstick product. Fat that usually used is ester. Esther is the product of the reaction between fatty alcohols and fatty acids. This ester can also exist in various forms, solid, paste, thick, thin and others.

Fragance/Perfume Used in Lipstick

Fragance/perfume is essential components of the lipstick. Perfume provides the desired smell to the lipsticks. Usually it is used also to cover the unpleasant odor of fat or wax. Provide a sense of interest can vary depending on the type, price, and quality of the selected aroma. It generally used as an oil-based concentrate that is miscible with the other oils in the formulation.

Antioxidants Used in Lipstick

Many materials commonly used in lipsticks are easily oxidized in air and produce an unpleasant odor, or smell rancid. Therefore, antioxidants are advised to be added to the formulation of lipstick or for some material that is stored for a long time with the appropriate antioxidant.

Antioxidants are commonly used in lipsticks are: BHA, BHT, propyl gallate, citric acid, oil-soluble compounds such as vitamins A, E, B, and C that act as antioxidants and free radical absorbent. These compounds are used respectively about 0.5% depending on the nature of the products listed on the label.

Preservative Used in Lipstick

• The life of bacteria or fungi actually grow in lipstick slowly because usually lipstick in anhydrous form.

• However, if this product is used on the lips after drinking sweet beverage then there is the possibility of contaminated surface can be so easily covered with microorganisms.

• Therefore, it is recommended that a small amount of preservative included in the formulation.

Dyes in Lipstick

What will happen if lipstick without colors? Color lipstick is one of the most decisive in making lipsticks, and the colors were followed in accordance with the modes up to date.

There are many dyes that are used both organic and inorganic to obtain the desired color differences.You must know, products that are used around the mouth (e.g. face cream, lipstick) should use FD&C or specifically approved D&C colors.

Lipstick dyes divided into two kinds:
1. Soluble Dyes : skin pigment with a solvent of dyes that easily penetrate the outer skin layer. Example: Fluorescein, Eosin

2. Insoluble Dyes : cover lips with a layer of dye that is served to cover up some skin roughness and provide a soft appearance. Example: Calcium, barium, aluminum, strontium.

Oil Used in Lipstick

Oils in lipstick provide comfort, lubrication during application, and contribute greatly to the cosmetic effect. They may alas provide brilliance and subtlety.

Oil in lipsticks to function as a solvent in some formulations and as a dispersing agent to dye is not soluble. Ideal oil mixture should produce an easily deployed product and product that has a thin layer close to the power of good.

Concentrations of other components are calculated from the amount of primary solvent used. Also to note also is that using mineral oil products will be less shiny than the one using vegetable oil.

Examples of oils that are commonly used in lipsticks: Vegetable oil (ol.olive, ol.sesame), mineral oil, Castor oil, Isopropyl myristate, Tetrahidrofurfuril alcohol, benzyl alcohol, Propylene glycol

Wax Used in Lipstick

Wax in lipstick create a crystalline network within the formulation that gives the lipstick its shape even in warm condition.

Luster and hardness generally depends on the characteristics and amount of wax used..Characteristics of best use of a mixture containing waxes with different melting point and setting the final melting point wax in merging with a high melting point in sufficient quantities.

Wax are ideal Alloys will retain the form of sticks ranging from at least 50rC and will maintain the oil phase so it will not create liquid droplets.

but will always be soft and easily applied to dye at minimum pressure with the lips. Concentration of the wax in lipstick can vary depending on how solid the final product and at what price. Usually between 10-25%

• The wax may be of vegetable, animal or synthetic origin.

AnimalBeeswaxComposed of fatty acids and alcohols, ThickenersBeesRelatively solid, give a lustrous appearance
Plant Carnauba wax Harder than bees wax, very slightly acid, but brittle. Often used mixed with bees wax From the leaves of the carnauba palm (Brazil) Relatively hard, give a lustrous appearance

Candelila wax Very hard wax From the candelilla plant Matte appearance
Mineral Paraffin Ozokerite Non-stick, Non-polar, white fairly transparent and odorless Paraffin is obtained from oil refining More malleable


Lipstick composition can be simple but can also be very complex, this is what sets it apart, especially in terms of quality and of course price.

Lipstick base composition is:

Ingredients% (w/w)Function
Wax15Provides hardness and creaminess
Wax paste / Fatty Material20Lubricates lipstick after application
Oil30Dispensing the pigment
Texturing agent10Improve texture
Coloring agent/pigments/pears20Giving color
Preservative agent / Antioxidants1Stabilize the formulation
Perfume / Fragance1Giving aroma
Active ingredients
Improve longterm benefits

Hard Gelatin Capsule Manufacturing

We often take drug or supplement capsule-shaped, but have we all understand about the materials used or the manufacturing process? We start with how the capsule was coming ... ..

Gelatin capsule was first patented by FAB. Mothes, students and Dublanc, a pharmacist. They obtained the patent in 1834, covers a method for producing gelatin capsules consisting of one section, oval-shaped, covered with a drop of hot concentrated solution of gelatin after charging. The use of gelatin capsules are spread even produced by many countries in Europe and America. Restricted the use of gelatin capsules patent on a particular company, sparked two new capsule form. In 1839 in Paris, Garot create a thin layer coated products, gelatin-coated pills. In 1846 another pharmacist, J.C. Lebhubby patented capsule 2 parts which is still used.

Hard capsule was first mass produced in the United States in the 19th century. Capsules are readily accepted by consumers due to the attractive appearance and its structure is designed such a way that is easy to swallow. In principle, the capsule can condition with a variety of materials in the form of powder to liquid oil-based....

Gelatin : The main ingredients of making capsule shells

Gelatin is a natural product, a solid substance is tasteless, colorless, and translucent obtained from partial hydrolysis of collagen.

In principle, the gelatin can be made from materials that are rich in collagen such as skin, connective tissue, organs, intestines and bones of animals just as pigs, horses, cattle or other animals. However, if made from leather and cow bone or other large animals, the process become longer and require water for washing / neutralizing (chemicals) are more, so that less developed because it requires huge investment so that prices become more expensive.

While the gelatin from pigs is much cheaper than other food additives. That is because pigs easily bred. Pigs can eat anything, including their own children. Pigs can live under any conditions even if very dirty. In terms of growth, pork is promising. A pig can give birth to twenty children at once. Since it is very easy to develop, products derived from pigs very much.

Current annual production of gelatin can reach 300 thousand tons per year worldwide,

Characteristics of Gelatin
Gelatin is a soluble protein that can behave as a gelling agent (gel-making material) or as non-gelling agent. Sources of raw materials derived from cows can be gelatin (bones and hide), pig (only (skin) and fish (skin).

Gelatin melts when heated, but will soon become solid again when cooled. When mixed with water, gelatin will form a solution with high viscosity which will also be a solid (gel) when cooled.

Although most of the composition of gelatin is a protein, gelatin less nutritional value than other protein sources. This is because the protein constituent of gelatin is a type of non essential amino acids (glycine and proline), which can be produced in the body. While on the other hand, less gelatin containing essential amino acids (isoleucine, threonine, and methionine) and do not contain tryptophan, an essential amino acid to another.

Some have considered that gelatin good for hair and nail growth, but this claim is not supported by sufficient scientific data.

Hard Gelatin Capsule Manufacturing steps :
1. Before capsule manufacturing start, first all raw materials should be released by Quality Control and all equipment should be validated.

2. First step is make gelatin solution 25-30% : gelatin and hot demineralized water are mixed under vacuum in Gelatin Melting System.

 3. After aging in stainless steel receiving tanks, the gelatin solution is transferred to stainless steel feed tanks.

4. Dyes, opacifants, preservative and any needed water are added to the gelatin in the feed tanks. The feed tanks are then used to gravity-feed gelatin into the machine for making capsules.

5. From the feed tank, the gelatin is gravity fed to dipper section. Here, the capsules are moulded onto stainless steel Pin Bars which are dipped into the gelatin solution. Once dipped, the Pin Bars rise to the upper deck allowing the cap and body to set on the Pins. The Pin Bars pass through the upper and lower kilns of Capsule Machine Drying System.

6. Here gently moving air which is precisely controlled for volume, temperature, and humidity, removes the exact amount of moisture from the capsule halves. Precision controls constantly monitor humidity, temperature, and gelatin viscosity throughout the production process.

 7. Once drying is complete, the Pin Bars enter the Table section which positions the capsule halves for stripping from the Pins in the Automatic section. In the Automatic section, capsule halves are individually stripped from the Pins.

8. The cap and body lengths are precisely trimmed to a ±0.15 mm tolerance. The capsule bodies and caps are joined automatically in the joiner blocks. 

9. Finished capsules are pushed onto a conveyer belt which carries them out to a container.

10. Capsule quality is monitored throughout the production process including size, moisture content, single wall thickness, and color

11. Capsules are sorted and visually inspected.
12. Capsules are now ready to be sterilized and packaged.

Around the world, gelatin production process is done according to standard ISO 9001 Quality Management System to ensure the quality of the resulting gelatin. Special gel that is used for pharmaceutical preparations, eg for shell capsules, must meet the standards set by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Pharmacopoeia.

Picture source from:
1. PT. KAPSULINDO NUSANTARA, Gunung Putri, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia.


A. Capsule History
Originally, medicine was made from plants, such as root. Bark, and wood are given in capsule form. Once known as synthetic drugs, capsules and then used for drug delivery is not soluble, for example: calomel, bismuth salts, mercury and chalk.

The term capsule derived from the Latin "Capsula" meaning small box. In 1833, Mothes first introduced the soft capsule (soft gel), which then in 1838 the invention is patentable. Hard Gelatin itself discovered by Lehuby in 1846.

Capsule can be used for internal usage (orally, through the nose, through the body cavity) and external usage (outside of the body).

B. Capsul Definition

Capsule is a solid particle which has a size of 0.1 to 10,000 μ. According to the pharmacopoeia of Indonesia, the capsule is a solid dosage of the drug in hard or soft shell that can be dissolved. Shells are generally made of gelatin, can also be made from starch or other suitable material.

C. Advantages and Disadvantages of Capsule

The advantages of Capsule :

• Hard-gelatin capsules suitable for extemporaneous compounding so that the dose and combination of ingredients may vary depending on the patient's needs
• ore stable than liquid dosage forms
• Small-particle size so that the dissolution and absorption in body fluids faster than pills and tablets
• Can cover up the taste and smell unpleasant medicine
• iquid preparations can be made with a certain concentration
• an be used for depot capsules and enteric coated capsule


First, this article was written to increase the knowledge of the reader to be more vigilant and understand the dangers of crystal meth (methamphetamine), not to emulate in terms of making or attempting to use it.

Shabu-shabu is a kind type of psychotropic drugs which could be fatal to the wearer.Shabu-shabu also known as Methamphetamine, methylamphetamine, N-methylamphetamine, desoxyephedrine, and "meth" or "crystal meth", is a psychosti,ulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine class of drugs.
Shabu (meth) increases alertness, concentration, energy, and in high doses, can induce euphoria, enhance self-esteem, and increase libido. Methamphetamine has high potential for abuse and addiction by activating the psychological reward system via triggering acascading release of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.


Do you know the ingredients/materials to make shabu (meth)? Most of the materials used in making meth is very easy to get and sold freely on the market. Few of these materials circulation are controlled by the authority in certain countries, such as Ephedrine / Pseudoephedrine.

Most of these materials are highly flammable, and any gas/fume that is created is a chemical compound that is very dangerous for human body. No wonder the industry or the manufacturer of crystal meth a lot of burning because of the handling is not quite right or the makers of amateurs who do not know how to handle these materials.

Some of the Problems Encountered in The Manufacture of Drug in Capsule Solid Dosage Form

In formulating a pharmaceutical preparation of course there are problems encountered, as well as the capsule formulation. Indeed, the production process is simpler than the manufacture of tablets.

Problems encounter in the manufacture of capsule is mostly on the type of active ingredients of the drug. Just as it is known, the limitations of capsule manufacture is not able or less suitable for active ingredients of drugs that are hygroscopic or form a semi-solid active ingredient or even liqud. Here are some examples of problems encountered in capsule-making:

1. The powder which has light specific gravity of light (voluminous powder) or powder that crystals shaped must be crushed before filled into capsule she;;. For example, quinine salts, Na-salycilate, amidazone, lincomycin HCl, Isoniazide.

If the capsule is made in large numbers production scale : 1 batch of > 1 kg), the material in the form of crystals or voluminous can be slugging first using compressing tablet machine / compacted using compacting machine and then sieved with a certain mesh size.


Hygroscopic compound is the ability of a substance or compound to absorb water molecules from the environment either through absorption or adsorption. Examples of hygroscopic substances are honey, glycerin, ethanol, methanol, concentrated sulfuric acid, and sodium hydrochloride.

Hygroscopic and deliquescent components pose problems when filled into gelatin capsules in that they absorb moisture from the gelatin, leaving the latter moisture depleted and often in a brittle or deformed state, susceptible to breakage and leakage.

Hygroscopic compounds can have negative influence on the formulation of hard gelatin capsules :
  1. Hygroscopic compounds can absorb water out of the shell. (normally water content of capsule shell is 13-16%)
  2. The absorption of moisture during production can lead to the build-up of a sorption film that affects the fluidity of the powder mix filling.
Therefore, ideally hygroscopic compounds should be combined with the diluents mannitol, as mannitol is relatively inert where water absorption is concerned.


Immediate release capsules with a simple powder filling are the best known type of hard gelatin capsules. They require only a few manufacturing process steps. It is easy to mix the active substance with excipients and to fill the mix into capsules.

In comparison with conventional tablet production, capsule production does not require expensive and time consuming operations like repeated mixing and sieving, or granulation and compression such in tablet manufacturing. This long process of manufacturing certainly require higher costs : for excipients, analysis and validation, which can add as much as 15% to the overall cost of production.

Table : Comparison Manufacturing Process of Tablet and capsule

Manufacturing ProcessTablet
(Wet Granulation)
(Dry Granulation)
2Preparing ingredientsPreparing ingredientsPreparing ingredients
4GranulatingAdding Lubricants (sieving and mixing) Filling into capsule
7Adding Lubricants (sieving and mixing)



Weight Powder and Volume Capsule in Hard Gelatin Capsule Accord with Capsule Size

Capsule is a popular solid dosage form, because the production is relatively more easily than on a tablet also allows patients to drink it.And it is a continuing trend. The hard gelatin capsule is increasingly being chosen for new medicine.

Hard gelatin capsules have some type of size and various colors. The use of course depends on the dose of the active ingredient itself. The greater the dose the greater the size of the capsule is used. Addition of excipient is also a basic selection of capsule size.

Ideally, in designing or formulating drug in capsule dosage form, the less excipient which added even more good. However, rarely a capsule consisting of only one type of material is its active ingredient.

Many factors must be considered in adding ingredient materials. The first step in making capsule of course of study preformulation. We must know beforehand how the chemical and physical properties of active ingredients, and then we can make the estimation formula.


Amlodipine Besylate Properties

Name : Amlodipine besylate
Synonyms : Amlodipine besilate; 2-[(2-Aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-ethoxycarbonyl-5-methoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine benzenesulfonate
Molecular Structure
Molecular Formula : C20H25ClN2O5.C6H6O3S
Molecular Weight : 567.05
Melting point : 199-201 ºC
Physical State : white to off-white crystalline powder

Solubility In Water : Slightly soluble
Stability : Stable under ordinary conditions.

Applications and Mechanism Action of Amlodipine Besylate
Calcium ions are needed for electrical activity for the contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle and conduction of nerve cell. Calcium channel blocker is a drug which inhibits the entry of excess calcium into cells and/or prevents form the mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores, resulting in relaxation of blood vessel walls and cardiac muscle for blood to flow more freely, lowering blood pressure thereby reducing oxygen demand in the heart and relieving anginal pain. It is used in the treatment of angina, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.

Some major calcium channel blockers upon chemical structure are:
• Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers ; Amlodipine, Lacidipine, Lercanidipine, Nicardipine, Nifedipine, Nisoldipine, Nitrendipine, Nimodipine.
• Phenylalkylamine calcium channel blockers ; Gallopamil, Verapamil
• Benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers Diltiazem
• Diarylaminopropylamine ethers: Bepridil, Mibefradil

Amlodipine besylate is used in the treatment of hypertension and chronic stable and vasospastic angina. It a white crystalline powder; slightly soluble in water, propanol; freely soluble in methanol; sparingly soluble in ethanol; melting range 195 - 204 C; administered orally. The chemical designation is (RS) 3-ethyl-5-methyl-2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(2-chlorophenyl)- 1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5- pyridinedicarboxylate benzenesulphonate. SALES SPECIFICATION

Amlodipine Besylate Incompatibility
This article studies the compatibility of amlodipine besylate in its solid formulations with various drug excipients. The various factors affecting amlodipine besylate stability were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It has been found that binary 1:1 mixtures of amlodipine besylate and an excipient are stable at 65 degrees C and 40 degrees C/75% RH. Further investigations were conducted to study the stability of amlodipine besylate in multicomponent mixtures, including mixtures with actual formulations. The study reveals that mixtures of lactose, magnesium stearate, and water induce some instability on amlodipine besylate. The major degradation product confirmed by HPLC-mass spectrometry is amlodipine besylate glycosyl. This is in conformity with the well-known Maillard reaction between primary amines and lactose. Thus, lactose-free amlodipine formulations are recommended from the safety, quality, efficacy, and process cost points of view.

When the Drug substance-Excipient compatibility study of Amlodipine besylate was carried out by Differential Scanning calorimetric technique by using DSC-25 equipped with TC-11 TA Processor (Mettler, Switzerland), Maize Starch, Lactose, Anhydrous Lactose, Directly compressible Lactose, Pregelatinised Starch, Talc, Anhydrous Dicalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate engranules, Microcrystalline cellulose and Croscarmellose Sodium are found to be compatible. Lactose, Pregelatinised Starch, Sodium starch Glycolate and Magnesium stearate are found to be incompatible.

When the Drug substance-Excipient compatibility study was carried out by High Performance Liquid Chromatographic analysis of Drug-Excipient mixture samples exposed to accelerated temperature and Humidity conditions over a period of time, it is found that Amlodipine besylate is compatible with Anhydrous Lactose, Directly compressible Lactose, Microcrystalline cellulose, Maize Starch, Anhydrous Dicalcium phosphate, Dicalcium phosphate engranules, Polyvinyl- pyrrolidone, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, Magnesium stearate, Colloidal Silicon dioxide, Talc and Croscarmellose Sodium. Amlodipine besylate was found to be incompatible with Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, Sodium alginate, Gelatin and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose.

Hand Soap Recipes

So many kinds of soap on the market, ranging from ordinary soap to special soap. Ordinary soap refer to solid soap is often used to clean up the limbs of society as a whole. For hand soap liquid form, we assess the type of soap that is specific, meaning soap which is devoted to clean the hands from dirt.

If we look at the hand soap is widely in use or are provided in toilet facilities located in restaurants, hotels, malls, hospitals, households, especially upper middle class, etc.. It is expected that after using toilet facilities, wash hands with hand soap is an effective way to stay healthy and hygienic. If the appeal solid wash hands with soap (bars), it seems less practical and effective course.

Hand soap formula below, contains different antiseptic with a hand soap in the market. When compared to hand soap on the market. Make their own products can save 60% - 70%, even more.