A. Capsule History
Originally, medicine was made from plants, such as root. Bark, and wood are given in capsule form. Once known as synthetic drugs, capsules and then used for drug delivery is not soluble, for example: calomel, bismuth salts, mercury and chalk.

The term capsule derived from the Latin "Capsula" meaning small box. In 1833, Mothes first introduced the soft capsule (soft gel), which then in 1838 the invention is patentable. Hard Gelatin itself discovered by Lehuby in 1846.

Capsule can be used for internal usage (orally, through the nose, through the body cavity) and external usage (outside of the body).

B. Capsul Definition

Capsule is a solid particle which has a size of 0.1 to 10,000 μ. According to the pharmacopoeia of Indonesia, the capsule is a solid dosage of the drug in hard or soft shell that can be dissolved. Shells are generally made of gelatin, can also be made from starch or other suitable material.


C. Advantages and Disadvantages of Capsule


The advantages of Capsule :

• Hard-gelatin capsules suitable for extemporaneous compounding so that the dose and combination of ingredients may vary depending on the patient's needs
• ore stable than liquid dosage forms
• Small-particle size so that the dissolution and absorption in body fluids faster than pills and tablets
• Can cover up the taste and smell unpleasant medicine
• iquid preparations can be made with a certain concentration
• an be used for depot capsules and enteric coated capsule



The Disadvantages of Capsule:

• Not suitable for very soluble ingredients such as KCl, CaCl2, KBR, NH4Br. When the capsule is broken contact with the wall of the stomach, then the solution will be concentrated so that irritate the stomach and the stomach becomes tense.
• Can not be used for materials that are very eflorescent or deliquescent. Eflorescent material make capsule become soft while deliquescent material causing the capsule to become brittle and easily broken.
• The bitter-medicine will cause vomiting and corrosive which are difficult to overcome
• It took a relatively long compounding


D. Terms / Characteristics of Capsules


Capsules should be qualified:

1. Uniformity
a. Weight uniformity
- For soft capsules containing liquids, or
- For products containing active substances> 50 mg which is 50% or more of the weight per capsule
b. Content uniformity


2. Dissolution
Dissolution does not apply to soft gel unless specifically stated in each monograph.
Example: Amoxicillin Capsules: within 90 minutes should dissolve not less than 80% Amoxicillin than the amount stated on the label.

With the above requirements capsule, the capsule contents must be homogeneous mixtures capsule means each part must contain the same material in the same comparison. The contents of the capsule / powder capsule must be dry, lumpy or may not contain water because they contain a hygroscopic material, eflorescent, deliquescent or eutectic mixture.

The powder also must have a certain degree of subtlety. When the capsule is very fine particle size, then the capsule was more homogenous, so that the faster dissolution of drugs in blood levels rapidly achieved with a high surface area will give a large adsorption capacity. This is important for capsule antacids, anti-diarrhea and antidote.

E. Type of Capsules 

There are various forms of capsule, including:

1. Based on consistency:
Hard-capsule
Soft-capsule

2.Based on how to use:
-Per Oral
-Per-rectal
-Per vaginal
-Topical

3.Based on purpose of use:
- For animals
- For human

F. Hard Gelatin Capsule 

Hard gelatin capsule shell consisting of:
1. Basic ingredients: Gelatin, Sugar, Water
2. Other ingredients: Dyes, preservatives (eg SO2), Blur agent (eg TiO2), flavoring agent

The size and capacity of hard gelatin capsule shell :
1. For human: 000, 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
2. For animals: 10, 11, 12

G. Soft Capsule
Soft capsules shell consisting of:
1. The basic ingredients: Gelatin, tenderizer (poly-ol), Sugar, Water (6-13%)
2. Other Materials: Dyes, preservatives, blur agent, flavoring agent, enteric coating (for a capacity of 1-480 Minims (1 minim = 0.06ml)

Form of soft capsule shell:
1. Round: Capacity 0.05-6 ml
2. Oval: capacity 0.05-6.5 ml
3. Shirt: Capacity 0.15-25 ml
4. Tube: Capacity 0.15-30 ml
5. Miscellar: Capacity 0.3-5 ml

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