In formulating a pharmaceutical preparation of course there are problems encountered, as well as the capsule formulation. Indeed, the production process is simpler than the manufacture of tablets.

Problems encounter in the manufacture of capsule is mostly on the type of active ingredients of the drug. Just as it is known, the limitations of capsule manufacture is not able or less suitable for active ingredients of drugs that are hygroscopic or form a semi-solid active ingredient or even liqud. Here are some examples of problems encountered in capsule-making:

1. The powder which has light specific gravity of light (voluminous powder) or powder that crystals shaped must be crushed before filled into capsule she;;. For example, quinine salts, Na-salycilate, amidazone, lincomycin HCl, Isoniazide.

If the capsule is made in large numbers production scale : 1 batch of > 1 kg), the material in the form of crystals or voluminous can be slugging first using compressing tablet machine / compacted using compacting machine and then sieved with a certain mesh size.


2. The powder that easy to melt or absorb water/moisture (such as KI, NaI, Glucosamine, Chondroitin) will damage the capsule wall so that the capsule wall easily vulnerable, this vulnerability is caused by the ingredients that are hygroscopic, ie absorbs water from the capsule shell. To overcome this, it can be done by adding an inert material, such as lactose, mannitol or starch.

3. Mixed material or compounds that has melting point lower than the melting point of each substance, such as a mixture of asetosal and antipirin, camphor and salol. This causes the capsules to be softening, even to stick to each other. This can be overcome by adding an inert material or by entering each ingredient in a small capsule, then the two materials were incorporated into a larger capsule. Another way is by use of adsorbent as a filling to separate elements which, when it contacts will absorb the material that can be melted, such as: magnesium carbonate, kaolin, or magnesium oxide light (used less than 120 mg per capsule).

4. Viscous liquid material in small amounts can be dried by adding inert material, then put into capsules. However, the material shall be made into a pill mass in advance if the amount a lot, and then inserted into the capsule. Example: Ichtyol.

5. Fatty oil can be directly inserted into the capsule then closed. However, volatile oils such as creosote and alcohol will damage the capsule shell so it must be diluted first with fatty oils to levels below 40% before it is inserted into the capsule.

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