Film Coating Tablet Materials and Ingredients


Polymers like methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, ethyl cellulose and others became the main coating materials. The higher viscosity grades of HPMC though provided film with good tensile strength but produces films having poor adhesion with the core surface and very often one can easily peal-off the film from the tablet surface.

If you use hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and dissolved in water, you must face problems, such as :
  • high solution viscosity
  • water is a poor solvent for HPMC as compared to organic solvents, therefore, solution preparation is difficult
  • water has much higher surface tension than organic solvents, material wetting is difficult resulting in poor film adhesion
  • films produced using water as solvent has poor mechanical proper- ties like low tensile strength, higher modulus of elasticity and low film adhesion. 
Selecting the correct polymer is very critical for the success of aqueous coating formulation.

By selecting the lower viscosity polymers, the solid content in the coating formulation can be increased which will result in lesser amount of water required which in turn can increase the coating speed. However, the lower viscosity HPMC produces the films with lower tensile strength.

Sodium Diclofenac Enteric Coated Tablet Formula and Manufaturing

There are several drugs that can be damaged or become inactive because the gastric liquid or can irritate the gastric mucosa. Therefore, these drugs need to be coated with enteric coated to protect the tablet core so that was not destroyed in the acidic environment of the stomach, preventing damage to the active ingredient which is unstable at low pH, protecting the stomach from the irritating effects of certain drugs and to facilitate the delivery of drugs absorbed in the intestine.

Enteric-coated polymers include cellulose acetyl phtalate, polyvinyl acetyl phtalate, and acrylate. Polymers are often used for enteric coating is acrylate derivatives, some of which can use water as a solvent and carrier. Eudragit ® L 30 D-55 is a polymer of methacrylic acid and have the ability and high stability against gastric fluid resistance, began to dissolve at pH 5.5 to pH 7 and using water as a solvent.

Sodium Diclofenac: Mechanism of Action and Side Effects
Diclofenac is a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor which potency is equivalent to indomethacin. Although the mechanism of action of diclofenac is to inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, diclofenac also cause a decrease by increasing retrieval lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid into triglycerides. Common side effects are nausea, gastritis, skin erythema and headache, as were all NSAID drugs, the use of these drugs have to be careful in patients with peptic ulcers. Therefore, diclofenac sodium oral pharmaceuticals particularly tablets must be coated.


Enteric coating is aimed to prevent the formulations from gastric fluid in the stomach and release the drug component in the intestinal region or once it has passed into the duodenum.
Enteric coated tablets resist the action of the acidic stomach fluids and pass through it before the coating can dissolve thus protecting the gastric mucosa from the irritating effects of the ingredients in the tablets e.g. aspirin. However, this coating dissolves in the neutral or alkaline milieu of the intestine and the active ingredients become available for absorption into the blood stream.

Basically, coating process of enteric coated tablet consist of several steps :
  1. Manufacturing of tablet core
  2. Pre-coating/ Subcoating/Undercoat
  3. Enteric Coating
  4. Color Coat
  5. Polishing

Enteric Coating Tablet : Between Organic Solution and Aqueous Dispersion

Most of enteric coating polymers dissolve well in organic solvents and easy to evaporate, giving a stable coating solution that facilitates faster coating processes.

But, the practical use of organic solvents in pharmaceutical formulations has decreased since organic solvent residues in final products are restricted by the authorities in some countries, why?
  1. Organic solvents are highly flammable, require special handling and equipment
  2. Toxic to operators and harmful to the environment
  3. Organic solvents are more costly, add cost to the final product
  4. Toxicity potential of traces of the residual solvents in the tablet coating 
These concerns encourage the use of aqueous dispersion systems with 30-40% wt. dry polymer dispersed in water systems, assisted by surfactants. The last years efforts have been made to develop ready to use dispersions which include all auxiliary components such as plasticizers, opacifiers, and antifoaming agents.

Enteric Coating Tablet : Polymer, Material and Formulation

Enteric coating formulations
Enteric coating is aimed to prevent the formulations from gastric fluid in the stomach and release the drug component in the intestinal region or once it has passed into the duodenum.
Based on this approach, enteric coating is suitably applied for drugs which cause gastric irritation or are deteriorated by the gastric fluid or gastric enzyme.

Some of the most important reasons for the enteric coating are as follows:
  1. To protect the acid-liable drugs from the gastric fluid. Example : enzymes and certain antibiotics
  2. To prevent gastric distress or nausea due to irritation from a drug. Example : sodium salicylate
  3. To deliver drugs intended for local action in the intestines. Example : intestinal antiseptics could be delivered to their site of action in a concentrated form and bypass systemic absorption in the stomach.
  4. To deliver drugs that are optimally absorbed in the small intestine to their primary absorption site in their most concentrated form.
  5. To provide a delayed-release component for repeat action tablets.

Enteric Film Coatings Tablet with Eudragit

Enteric coating is aimed to prevent the formulations from gastric fluid in the stomach and release the drug component in the intestinal region or once it has passed into the duodenum. One of the widely used enteric film coating system is Eudragit.

Various Eudragit for Enteric Coating Products are summarized as follows:

  • EUDRAGIT L 30 D-55 is an aqueous dispersion, pH dependent anionic aqueous polymer dispersion solubilizing above pH 5.5 for targeted drug delivery in the duodenum.
  • EUDRAGIT L 100-55 is powder, prepared by spray-drying, can be reconstituted for aqueous formulations for targeted drug delivery in the duodenum.
  • EUDRAGIT L 100 is powder, pH dependent anionic polymer powder solubilizing above pH 6.0 for targeted drug delivery in the jejunum.
  • EUDRAGIT L S 100 is powder, pH dependent anionic polymer powder solubilizing above pH 7.0 for targeted drug delivery in the ileum.
  • EUDRAGIT FS 30 D is an aqueous dispersion, pH dependent polymer soluble above pH 7.0, requires no plasticizer


Unequal distribution of colour on the tablet surface with light and dark areas standing out in an otherwise uniform coloured surface

Cause :
• Variation in the colours of ingredients (drug and other additives)
• Drugs with degradation nature and have different coloured degraded products
• Migration of dye to the surface of granulation during drying. At high temperature dyes are easily migrate to surface and spread to upper surface.
• Uneven distribution of colored adhesive gel solutions resulting in precipitation
• The improper size either large or small particles enhances color distribution. During preparation dyes are not properly mixed and not selected ideally or any incompatibility will tends to enhance appearance of color on tablet surface.
• Improper storage conditions.

• By using bright coloring agent that will mask all the color variations
of the ingredients
• Proper drying by reducing the drying temperature
• Colored adhesive gel solutions must be added when they are hot too much cooler powder mixtures to avoid precipitation
• It is better to incorporate fine powder adhesives like acacia and tragacanth into product before adding the granulating fluid
• By changing the solvent system or binder system
• Grinding to small particle size

Read More :

Coating Tablet Defects : The Cause and The Remedies

Here is a list of common defects associated with coated tablets and some likely causes and the remedies.

Picking and sticking

This is when the coating removes a piece of the tablet from the core. Overwetting or examples or excessive film tackiness causes tablets to stick to each other or to the coating pan. On drying, at the point of contact, a piece of the film may remain adhered to the pan or to another tablet, giving a “picked” appearance to the tablet surface and resulting in a small exposed area of the core. It is caused by over-wetting the tablets, by under-drying, or by poor tablet quality.

REMEDY: A reduction in the liquid application rate or increase in the drying air temperature and air volume usually solves this problem. Excessive tackiness may be an indication of a poor formulation.


This is the term for two tablets that stick together, and it’s a common problem with capsule shaped tablets.

REMEDY : Assuming you don’t wish to change the tablet shape, you can solve this problem by balancing the pan speed and spray rate. Try reducing the spray rate or increasing the pan speed. In some cases, it is necessary to modify the design of the tooling by very slightly changing the radius. The change is almost impossible to see, but it prevents the twinning problem.

The Important Parameter in Tablet Coating Process

Parameters Influences in Tablet Coating Process

Tablet coating is a complex process that is affected by many variables. Some of those variables can be evaluated or controlled, others can’t.

Here are some of the parameters you should check when evaluating coating process to determine the source of defective coated tablets.

1. Control. Many problems occur in coating when you can’t control every important parameter, such as temperature, pan pressure, spray rates, and atomization pressure. But, the tablet’s surface temperature can be measure with additional tools (out from the coating equipment) by using infra red thermometer (laser thermometer).

2. Tablet quality. Tablets must have the proper porosity, surface, hardness, and moisture content. You can’t have consistent coating without consistent tablet quality.

3. Waiting period. Most tablets cannot be coated immediately after they’ve been compressed. The energy within the tablets is still fairly high and they are still warm. In addition, tablet hardness changes over 24 to 48 hours. Let the tablets rest at least that long before you coat them meanwhile you can check the uncoated tablet for assay, dissolution or other specification by quality control. After the QC released the tablet, then you can start the coating process.



This article provide you the information about coating tablet process step by step complete with the parameters influenced and equipment for coating tablet.

The coating process is usually a batch driven task consisting of the following phases:
  • Batch identification and Recipe selection (film or sugar coating)
  • Loading/Dispensing (accurate dosing of all required raw materials)
  • Warming/Preheating
  • Spraying (application and rolling are carried out simultaneously)
  • Drying
  • Cooling
  • Unloading
 Modern Machine Coating Tablet

Tablet coating equipment may include :
  • spray guns
  • coating pan
  • polishing pan
  • solution tanks
  • blenders and mixers
  • homogenizers
  • mills
  • peristaltic pumps
  • fans
  • steam jackets                                                                                           Spray Gun in Coating Pan
  • exhaust
  • heating pipes
  • scales
  • filters

Gelatin Coated Tablets Technology

A recent innovation is the gelatin coated tablets. The innovator product the gelcap is a capsule shaped compressed tablet coated with gelatin layer. The purpose is make this solid dosage form easy to swallow.

The Advantages of Gelatin Coated Tablet :
1. This allows the coated product to be about one third smaller than a capsule filled with an equivalent amount of powder.
2. The gelatin coating facilitates swallowing.
3. Gelatin coated tablets are more tamper evident than unsealed capsule.

Coating may be also performed for granules (coated granules) to be compressed into tablet or filled into capsule

Compression Coating Tablets

Although less popular, it gained increased interest in the recent years for creating modified released products.

It involves the compaction of granular materials around a preformed tablet core using specially designed tableting equipment. Compression coating is a dry process.

This type of tablet (compression coated tablet) has two parts, internal core and surrounding coat. The core is small porous tablet and prepared on one turret. For preparing final tablet, a bigger die cavity in another turret is used in which first the coat material is filled to half and then core tablet is mechanically transferred, again the remaining space is filled with coat material and finally compression force is applied.

Mechanically, it is a complex process, as the tablet may be tilted when transferred to the second die cavity.

Sugar and Film Coating Tablet Differences

Tablets are coated with sugar or film for a variety of reasons.

When buying any tablet, such as vitamins, over-the-counter cold medicine and prescription drugs, you will notice that each tablet has a smooth texture. This is because tablets are coated with sugar or a polymer-based film. Tablets are coated for a variety of reasons, such as making the tablet easy to swallow, covering a foul taste or odor, and stabilizing the ingredients.


Film coating formulations usually contain the following components
1. Polymer
2. Plasticizer
3. Colorants / Opacifiers
4. Solvent / Vehicle
5. Flavours and sweeteners
6. Surfactants
7. Antioxidants
8. Antimicrobials/Preservatives

A film former capable of producing smooth thin films reproducible under the prescribed coating conditions. Amongst the vast majority of the polymers used in film coating are cellulose derivatives or acrylic polymers and copolymers.

Parameters in Film Coating Tablet Process

Coating at any scale involves the understanding of the interactions between the product being coated, the film coating formulation, the equipment installation and the processing parameters. When a film coating process is transferred and scaled from the laboratory to production equipment many factors must be well thought-out.

The variable inputs to a film coating process derived from differences in equipment installations include but are not limited to :

1. air volume
2. inlet air temperature
3. humidity control
4. nozzle orifice size
5. numbers of spray guns
6. the distance from spray gun to spray gun
7. the distance of the spray guns to the tablets
8. Spray rate
9. Atomizing air pressure
10. the coating pan dimensions
11. Rotating speed of pan

Read More:

Film Coating Tablet : Coating Process and Coating Equipment

A film coating is a thin polymer-based coat applied to a solid dosage form such as a tablet. The thickness of such a coating is usually between 20-100 ┬Ám. Under close inspection the film structure can be seen to be relatively non- homogenous and quite distinct in appearance, from a film forming, from casting a polymer solution on a flat surface.

Types of film coating tablet :

1. Immediate release (non functional) film coating:
They do not affect the biopharmaceutical properties of the tablet. They are readily soluble in water.

Read More :

Sugar Coating Tablet Process and Equipment

Sugar coating process consists of several stages which ranged from couple hours to several days. A successful product is highly dependent on operator skill. The operator determines the amount of solution to be added, the manner and rate of pouring, when to deliver the air dryer, and how long or how quickly the tablets were rotated in the pan.

The core tablet better convex on the surface, with rounded edges and thin to facilitate the coating with sugar. Because the sugar coating tends to a long and strong shaking, then the core tablet should fairly resistant, not easily broken, chipped, or eroded. For that, the first tablet core must have a high friability values.

It involves successive application of sucrose based coating formulations to tablet cores, in suitable coating equipment. Water evaporates from the syrup leaving a thick sugar layer around each tablet. Sugar coats are often shiny and highly colored.

Sugar-coating equipment
Typically, tablets are sugar coated by panning technique, using traditional rotating sugar coating pan with a supply of drying air (thermostatically controlled).
The pan is automatically rotated, allowing tablets to tumble over each other while making contact with the coating solutions which are gently poured or sprayed, portion wise onto the tablets with warm air blown to hasten drying. Each coat is applied only after the previous coat is dried.

Types of Tablet Coating

Coating is a proceeding to cover tablet with a layer / substances.

The purpose of tablet coating:
1. Cover the unpleasant taste, odor and color
2. Physical and chemical protection in medicine from environment (light, moisture, and air)
3. Control of drug release as in enteric coating or sustained release
4. Improve the appearance of tablets
5. Assist and facilitate the identification of drug
6. Easing the process of blistering

Various kinds of tablet coating

1. Sugar Coated Tablets (SCT)
Have you ever take medicine that taste sweet? it because bitter medicine has been coated with sugar-coated so that the bitter taste is reduced or offset. Suitable also for drugs that smells fishy or unpleasant smell. Usually, because of the coating, absorbs process becomes slower. Sugar Coated tablets are usually used for children.

Sugar Coated Tablet involves successive application of sucrose-based coating formulations to tablet cores, in suitable coating equipment. Water evaporates from the syrup leaving a thick sugar layer around each tablet. Sugar coats are often shiny and highly colored.


Did you know, green tea has a million properties to prevent illness? Polyphenols in tea are antioxidants biflavonoid type that 100 times more effective than vitamin C and 25 times more effective than vitamin E.

Now many products in the market made from or containing green tea. These include green tea products in the form of effervescent tablets. Certainly more interesting way of presentation is by dissolving in water and then will arise froth resulting from the release of CO2. This product is also relatively more stable in storage than in liquid form/ beverage in bottle.

Carbonation produced can give freshness and cover unwanted taste. Green tea effervescent tablets are also more practical and easy to carry. Serving it also easy.

Epigalocatehchin and epigalocatechin galate contained in tea may also act as inhibitors of angiotensin transferase, so that by drinking tea may have the opportunity to lower blood pressure

Green tea contains bioactive polyphenols compounds that cause a reaction to the body relaxed and comfortable. Functional components responsible for the creation of an atmosphere that is L-teanin.
L-teanin is a group of amino acids that can cause a bad atmosphere (umami or savory), which is only found in tea plants.


• Phenol substance: tannin / catekin, flavanol
• Non-phenol substance: resin, vitamins, chlorophyll, carbohydrate, and mineral substances
• Aromatic Substance: the fraction of carboxylic, phenolic, carbonyl, carbonyl-free neutral (largely made up of alcohol).
• enzymes: invertase, amylase, a-glucosidase, oximetilase, protease, and peroxidase.
• Vitamins: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin K


Many women have problems with the skin at the eye area, especially due to the sensitive skin types. As a result of make-up becomes an alternative to cover it. Yet, precisely the wrong makeup can aggravate skin conditions.

Please note, the skin in the eye area is different from the surrounding skin, why? It has the thinnest layer, less fat and no muscle underneath. There is only blood vessels that directly blackened if you are too tired and less rest.

Moisturizer is a powerful weapon in skin care. But, make sure you choose a moisturizer eye with textures as possible. Moisturizers that the texture of heavy cream and thick it makes the pores of the thin eye skin difficulty breathing and even make eye puffiness.


Besides the eyes, lips are the most important element that can add the beauty of woman. Healthy lips will look soft and 'wet'. Dry lips and chapped lips showed unhealthy. The causes can vary, use lipstick or lip balm, that is not appropriate, or by habit wet her lips with saliva.

Lips, as the skin, also need protection from the sun. If we normally protect skin by wearing a moisturizer with sunscreen, we should also protect the lips using a lip balm that contains sunscreen.

Usually, many people who wet her lips with saliva to moisten the lips. This method is simply not true, because it will make the lips dry. Lip moisturizer will help to evaporate naturally with saliva, consequently, the dry lips.

Instead, use lip balm to provide extra moisture for your lips. Try to choose a lip balm with no additional flavor, because it will stimulate you to lick it. If you want a natural treatment, choose honey as a moisturizer. To reduce the chances are you interested in licking, apply honey at bedtime.

Be careful to choose a lipstick. Inappropriate choice of lipstick can cause irritation, and make the lips dry and chapped. To check, try applying your new lipstick on the inside of the sleeve, leave on for 48 hours. If you feel itchy, do not ever dare to put it on your lips.

Here is one of the HIGH PROTECTIVE SUNSCREEN LIP BALM you can make your own:


Why is shea butter in such demand? world are just beginning to recognize the considerable health and beauty benefits of shea butter, something Africans have known for thousands of years. Shea butter has been used to help heal burns, sores, scars, dermatitis, psoriasis, dandruff, and stretch marks. It may also help diminish wrinkles by moisturizing the skin, promoting cell renewal, and increasing circulation. Shea butter also contains cinnamic acid, which can be used also as natural sunscreen to protect the skin from harmful UV rays.

Shea butter is a particularly effective moisturizer because contains so many fatty acids, which are needed to retain skin moisture and elasticity. The high fatty acid content of shea butter also makes it an excellent additive to soap, shampoos, anti-aging creams, cosmetics, lotions, and massage oils—its soft, butter-like texture melts readily into the skin.

Shea butter protects the skin from both environmental and free-radical damage. It contains vitamins A and E, and has demonstrated both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

Ingredients% w/wFunctionTrade Name
Ozokerite4Provides hardness and creaminessOzokerite Wax
Candelilla Wax11Provides hardness and creaminess

Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers
Eutanol G
Alkyl Methicone and Olefin5silicone wax that increases the hard- ness of the stick
Phenyl Trimethicone7Improved emolliency and water repellency
Oenothera Biennis(Evening Primrose Oil)8Fragance, carrier oilCosmosil-E
Ribes nigrum (Black currant) Seed oil8Carrier oil, baseBlackcurrant Oil
Hydrogenated Lanolin9Emulsifying agentSatulan
Oleyl Alcohol8Surfactant, emulsifier, emollient and thickenerNovol
Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter)10Emollients, Carrier oil, Provides hardness and creaminess


Oleyl Alcohol Synonim :
oleic alcohol, OleylalcoholtranscisIsomer, (Z)-octadec-9-enol, cis-9-Octadecen-1-ol, octadecenyl alcohol

Oleyl Alcohol Function :
Surfactant, emulsifier, emollient and thickener. It has uses as a nonionic in skin creams, lotions and many other cosmetic products, plasticizer for softening fabrics, surfactant and hair coating in shampoos and hair conditioners, and a carrier for medications.

Oleyl Alcohol Description:
Oleyl alcohol, octadecenol, or cis-9-octadecen-1-ol, is a non-ionic, unsaturated fatty alcohol coming from inedible beef fat. It is also found in fish oil. It is liquid (thicky oil), odor like alcohol.


Octyldodecanol Synonim :
Octyldodecanol, 2-Octyl-1-dodecanol, Standamul G, 2-Octyldodecanol, Eutanol G, 2-Octyldodecan-1-ol, Octyl dodecanol, 2-Octyl dodecanol, Isofol 20, Kalcohl 200G

Octyldodecanol Function :
thickening, emulsifier and emollients, also rarely as a solvent and fragrance ingredient. Octyldodecanol helps to form emulsions and prevents formulas from separating into its oil and liquid components. It can also reduce the tendency of finished products to generate foam when shaken. Octyldodecanol acts as a lubricant on the skin, giving a soft, silky feel as an ingredient in lotion.

Application : lipstick, lip gloss, moisturizer, facial moisturizer/treatment, eye shadow, foundation, concealer, lip balm,anti-aging, sunscreen.

Octyldodecanol Description:
Octyldodecanol is a long-chain fatty alcohol, it is a clear, colorless, oil liquid that is often seen as a thickener in moisturizers because of its lubricating and emollient properties.


If you are looking at lip balm products, make sure you also take a close look at their containers. Adjust to your needs and your comfort in use. Some people even collect it because of the shape, color and aroma variety. Let's look together, the various containers of lip balm.

Lip Balm Jars/ Lip Balm Bottle
  Lip Balm Square Tin Jars

Typically, lip balm containers take the shape of small flat bottles, like jar with a lid that you can twist to open and close. These containers are glass bottles, with a label running across their bodies. The labels mention what the lip balms contain and how you should use them. This is how you will typically find your lip balm packed.

  Lip Balm  Clear Acrylic Square Jars


The high petrolatum level in this lip balm provides smooth application and helps prevent chapped lips. The sunscreen gives light UV protection

Ingredients% w/wFunctionTrade Name
Petrolatum44Emollient,  Lubricates lipstick after applicationAmber Petrolatum
Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate20Emollient,  viscosity increasing agentCeraphyl 847
Beeswax, candelilla wax, Hydrogenated Soy Glyceride, Paraffin, Carnauba, Stearic Acid10Provides hardness and creaminessIsobeeswax SP 154
Ozokerite Wax white SP 10208.7Provides hardness and creaminess
Candelilla Wax SP6Provides hardness and creaminess
Stearyl alcohol5Emollient, Dispensing the pigment
Carnauba Wax2Provides hardness and creaminess
Mineral Oil2Emollient, Dispensing the pigmentDrakeol 9
Octyl Methoxycinnamate2SunscreenParsol MCX, Eusolex 2292, Uvinul MC80


Octyl Methoxycinnamate Synonim :
Octyl methoxycinnamate, 2-ethylhexyl (2E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate, Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, Octinoxate, Uvinul MC80, (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl) prop-2-enoic acid 2-ethylhexyl ester
Trade names : Eusolex 2292 and Uvinul MC80

Octyl Methoxycinnamate Function :

Potent absorber of sun rays (mainly UVB, less UVA), protecting the skin from damage. It is also used to reduce the appearance of scars.Can be added to formulas as is, recommended final concentration 2-10%, 1% corresponds to a sun protection factor (SPF) of about 2. Maximum allowed: USA 7.5 %, Europe & Japan 10 %. Should be stored light-protected.

Applications: Sun care & after-sun products, hair care products, protective creams & lotions, liquid makeup products.


Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate Function :
A skin conditioning and viscosity increasing agent.
In cosmetics and personal care products, Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate is used in the formulation of eye makeup, blushers, foundations and other makeup products. It is also used in skin care and cleansing products.

Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate Working Mechanism :
Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate slows water loss from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin’s surface. It is also used to increase the thickness of the lipid (oil) portion of cosmetics and personal care products. It is used in 105 cosmetic products at concentrations from 2% to 15%.

Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate Physical and Chemical Properties

Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate Description:
Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate is an amber yellow liquid. It has mild odor. A small amount of white solid may form occasionally, in which case the product should be heated slightly before use and stirred to ensure homogeneity.