Basic Technique of Preparation of Potio

Potio is liquid preparation, a liquid that is intended to drink, mixed and blended in such a way that it is possible to be given in a volume of a single dose in large quantities, generally 50ml.

Some Basic Techniques of Potio Manufacturing
The first step is generally performed in the manufacture potio is to dissolve the active ingredients, previously dissolved in accordance solubility, solubility in activism substance found in many literature.

When the active ingredient is not soluble, it needs to be made a suspension, suspending agent commonly used:
  • Carboxy Methyl Celullose (CMC) 0.5 - 2% w / v (generally 1%). CMC used by sown on top of hot water (the amount is 1:20).
  • Pulvis Gummosus (PGS) 1%, usually for materials that are less efficacious drugs.
  • Pulvis Gummosus (PGS) 2%, usually for every efficacious drugs.

HLB (Hydrophyl Lipophyl Balance) Value : How to Calculate HLB in Formula

Each type of emulgator has a price equilibrium is not the same magnitude. Equilibrium price is known as HLB (Hydrophyl Lipophyl Balance) is a number that indicates the ratio between lipophilic groups with hydrophilic groups.

The HLB value is an indication of the solubility of the surfactant. This surfactant solubility property is an indicator of its likely end use. The lower the HLB value the more lipophilic or oil soluble the surfactant is. The higher the HLB value the more water soluble or hydrophilic the surfactant is

HLB values are calculated for nonionic surfactants only. The HLB value is the molecular weight percent of the water loving portion of the nonionic surfactant - divided by five


• mixing unlike oils together/Antifoaming agent :  use surfactants with HLB’s of 1 to 3
• making water-in-oil emulsions/ Emulgator type w/o :  use surfactants with HLB’s of 4 to 6
• wetting powders into oils/Wetting agent : use surfactants with HLB’s of 7 to 9
• making self emulsifying oils : use surfactants with HLB’s of 7 to 10
• making oil-in-water emulsions/Emulgator type o/w : use surfactant blends with HLB’s of 8 to16
• making detergent solutions : use surfactants with HLB’s of 13 to 15
• for solubilizing oils ( micro-emulsifying ) into water/Solubilizing agent : use surfactant blends with HLB’s of 13 to 18 Some general required HLB rules for O/W emulsions

Some general required HLB rules for O/W emulsions

ClassRequired HLB
Vegetable oil family6
Silicone oils8-12
Petroleum oils10
Typical ester emollients12
Fatty acids and alcohol14-15

How to Make Your own Lip Pencil : Lip Pencil Formula and Composition

Many people often misinterpret the use of lip pencil with lip liner. There are fundamental differences in the use of these two cosmetic. Lip Liner serves t correct the shape of the lips and at the same time can make a lasting look of your lipstick. Can be used in two ways, by simply illustrates the edge of the lips as the frame or apply it thoroughly afterwards. While lip pencil shaped lighter and easier to apply than the lip liner. It is easier to draw. The drawback, this lip pencil can make the lips dry.

Lip pencil is a product that utilizes the properties of dispersive Cera Bellina to produce a product that coats easily, and leave the color that is waterproof.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Soft Gel Capsules

Soft gelatin capsules or also known as soft gels are becoming a popular dosage form for the administration of liquids, suspensions, pastes, and dry powders in the dietary supplement industry. Softgels can be an effective delivery system for oral drugs, especially poorly soluble drugs. This is because the fill can contain liquid ingredients that help increase solubility or permeability of the drug across the membranes in the body. Liquid ingredients are difficult to include in any other solid dosage form such as a tablet.

Here are the complete review of advantage and disadvantage of soft gelatin capsule

Soft Gelatin Capsule Manufacturing Equipment and Facility Plant

A company would have a minimum of 24,000-square feet of space to house the soft gel manufacturing operation. This would be efficient for a one- or two-encapsulation machine operation.

Equipment needs to produce soft gelatin capsule include:
1. stainless-steel mixing tanks
2. a cold-milling operation. Used for particle reducing, and evacuation for the removal of air in multivitamin products
3. ingredient-fill holding tanks, about three tanks



Drying process purpose is to decrease the moister content to create a hard and durable finished softgel capsules ready for packaging. After the softgels are formed through the die rolls, they contain around 20 percent water. This amount of water content is needed to keep the gel flexible enough to form the capsules.

Drying process requires an environment with low relative humidity in the air but not hot air. This process divided into two stages :


Manufacturing process of soft gelatin process divided into some steps, there are:
1. Gelatin Preparation
2. Material (Fill) Preparation
3. Encapsulation
4. Drying
5. Inspection
6. Polishing
7. Packaging

Gelatin Preparation

Raw granular gelatin is mixed with glycerine and water. Coloring agent can also be added at this stage. Glycerine acts as a plasticizer in the gelatine compound. Other plasticizers can also be used either alone or in combination with glycerine, such as sorbitol. The proportions of each ingredient involved in the mixture should be considered carefully because the shell material needs to be adapted to formulation and/or environmental requirements. For instance the gelatin recipe may need to be adjusted to account for acidity, water content of the fill material or high humidity environmental conditions.

Basic Formulations of Soft Gelatin Capsule Preparation

The formulation of capsule fill can be developed to fulfill the specifications and end-use requirements of the product.

Capsule content:
  • May be liquid or a combination of miscible liquids
  • Solution of a solid in a liquid or a suspension of a solid in a liquid
  • It can be a liquid like a volatile oil composition (e.g. Pudin hara)
  • Vegetable oils like arachis oil or aromatic or aliphatic hydrocarbons, ethers, eters, or alcohols.
  • Solid that are not Sufficiently soluble in liquids or in combination of liquids are capsulated as suspension
  • Suspending agents used are Lecithin, Soybean oil, Yellow wax.

Soft Gelatin Capsule Shell : Composition, Formula and Preparation

A soft gel capsule is a one piece, hermetically sealed soft gelatin shell containing a liquid, a suspension or a semisolid; referred to as a fill. The soft gel shell is usually comprised of a film-forming material such as gelatin, and a water-dispersible or water-soluble plasticizer (to impart flexibility). The soft gel shell could also include minor additives such as coloring agents, flavors, sweeteners, opacifying agent, medicaments, acid and preservatives. Soft gel capsules can also be enteric coated for certain applications.

Capsule shell composition:
  • Water : 45% w/w. The ratio by weight of water to dry gelatin can vary depending from 0.7-1.3 (water) to 1.0 (dry gelatin) depending on the viscosity of the gelatin being used.
  • Plasticizer. Used to make the soft gel shell elastic & pliable. Ration used is between 0.3- 1.8 for soft to hard shell on dry basis. Plasticizer usually used : Glycerin and sorbitol.
  • Coloring Agent. Colour used in shell has to be darker than color of encapsulating material. Color may be natural or synthetic.
  • Opacifier. Usually used is titanium dioxide, may be added to produce an opaque shell, when the fill formulation is a suspension or to prevent photo degradation of light sensitive fill ingredients. Concentration of oacifier may be up to 0.5%.
  • Chelating agents. Iron is always present in raw gelatin & should not contain iron more than 15 ppm. Additionally chelating agent may be used for preventing the reaction of iron with materials or colors.
  • Gelatin

Liposomes and Micelles Differences and Similarities

Shortly the differences between liposome and micelle is : Liposomes are composed of a lipid bilayer separating an aqueous internal compartment from the bulk aqueous phase. Micelles are closed lipid monolayers with a fatty acid core and polar surface, or polar core with fatty acids on the surface (inverted micelle).

Read this full article to know more detail about the Liposomes And Micelles: Differences And Similarities

Micelle formation is essential for the emulsification and subsequent absorption of fat-soluble nutrients such as vitamins E, D and K, the carotenoids and omega-3 EFAs. It is the bile salts formed in the liver and secreted by the gallbladder that allow micelles of fatty acids to form.

Liposome: Definition, Structure and Phospolipid

A liposome is a tiny vesicle, can be thought of as a hollow sphere whose size ranges from 30 nanometers to 10,000 nanometers or 10 microns, made from phospholipid molecules made which are the same molecules that comprise cell membranes. Liposomes can be filled with drugs, and used to deliver drugs for cancer and other diseases. Liposomes can be prepared by disrupting biological membranes, for example by sonication.

Liposome Structure

Phospholipids in liposome are amphipathic, that is, part of their structure is water-soluble (hydrophilic or water-loving) and the other part is oil-like which made of a long hydrocarbon chain (hydrophobic or water-fearing or fat-soluble). Therefore, when added to water, the water-soluble part of the phospholipid interacts with the water and the oil-like part of the molecule avoids the water.
In a cell, one layer of heads faces outside of the cell, attracted to the water in the environment. Another layer of heads faces inside the cell, attracted by the water inside the cell. The hydrocarbon tails of one layer face the hydrocarbon tails of the other layer, and the combined structure forms a bilayer.

Liposome Applications in Medicine and Drug Delivery

Liposomes are used for drug delivery due to their unique properties. A liposome encapsulates a region on aqueous solution inside a hydrophobic membrane; dissolved hydrophilic solutes cannot readily pass through the lipids. Hydrophobic chemicals can be dissolved into the membrane, and in this way liposome can carry both hydrophobic molecules and hydrophilic molecules. To deliver the molecules to sites of action, the lipid bilayer can fuse with other bilayers such as the cell membrane, thus delivering the liposome contents. By making liposomes in a solution of DNA or drugs they can be delivered past the lipid bilayer.

There are three types of liposomes - MLV (multilamellar vesicles) SUV (Small Unilamellar Vesicles) and LUV (Large Unilamellar Vesicles). These are used to deliver different types of drugs.


Nanorobots are of special interest to researchers in the medical industry. This has given rise to the field of nanomedicine. A nanorobot is a tiny machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision at nanoscale dimensions, that is, dimensions of a few nanometers (nm) or less, where 1 nm = 10-9 meter. A typical blood borne medical nanorobot would be between 0.5-3 micrometres in size, because that is the maximum size possible due to capillary passage requirement.

Nanorobot advantages
A major advantage of nanorobots is thought to be their durability. In theory, they can remain operational for years, decades, or centuries. Nanoscale systems can also operate much faster than their larger counterparts because displacements are smaller; this allows mechanical and electrical events to occur in less time at a given speed. Nanorobots might also produce copies of themselves to replace worn-out units, a process called self-replication.


The important parameters which need to be evaluated for the SLNs are:

• particle size
• size distribution kinetics (zeta potential)
• degree of crystallinity
• lipid modification (polymorphism)
• coexistence of additional colloidal structures (micelles, liposome, super cooled, melts, drug nanoparticles)
• time scale of distribution processes
• drug content
• in vitro drug release
• surface morphology

The particle size/size-distribution may be studied using :
  • photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS)
  • transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
  • scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
  • atomic force microscopy (AFM)
  • scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)
  • freeze fracture electron microscopy (FFEM)


SLNs are made up of solid lipid, emulsifier and water/solvent.

The lipids used :
• triglycerides (tri-stearin)
• partial glycerides (Imwitor)
• fatty acids (stearic acid, palmitic acid)
• steroids (cholesterol)
• waxes (cetyl palmitate)

Various emulsifiers and their combination (Pluronic F 68, F 127) have been used to stabilize the lipid dispersion. The combination of emulsifiers might prevent particle agglomeration more efficiently. Selecting of the emulsifier is depends on the administration route with a suitable number of emulsifier suitable for parenteral administration.


Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Technique - Ultrasonication or high speed homogenization

SLN can also obtained by high speed stirring or sonication. The equipment used in this process is very common in every lab.

The disadvantages of this method are:
• broader particle size distribution ranging into micrometer range
• physical instabilities (particle growth upon storage)
• Potential metal contamination due to ultrasonication

To make a stable formulation, studies have been performed by various research groups that high speed stirring and ultrasonication are used combined and performed at high temperature.0


Solid Lpid Nanoparticles (SLN) Manufacturing 

There are several technique or method to prepare Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), they are:
1. High shear homogenization
2. Hot homogenization
3. Cold homogenization
4. Ultrasonication or high speed homogenization
5. solvent emulsification/evaporation method
6. supercritical fluid method
7. Spray drying method
8. Double emulsion method

Solid Lipid Nanoparticles : New Pharmaceutical Delivery System

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are a new pharmaceutical delivery system or pharmaceutical formulation. These are made of solid lipids which remain solid at room temperature. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are particulate systems for parenteral drug administration with mean particle diameters ranging from 50 up to 1000 nm.

Advantages of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are :
  • the use of physiological lipids
  • the avoidance of organic solvents
  • a potential wide application spectrum (dermal, per os, intravenous)
  • the high pressure homogenization as an established production method
  • improved bioavailability
  • protection of sensitive drug molecules from the outer environment (water, light)
  • controlled release characteristics were claimed by incorporation of poorly water soluble drugs in the solid lipid matrix
  • allowing autoclave sterilization, a necessary step towards formulation of ocular preparations.
 SLN do not show biotoxicity as they are prepared from physiological lipids. SLNs are especially useful in ocular drug delivery as they can enhance the corneal absorption of drugs and improve the ocular bioavailability of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs.