Some examples of natural dyes used for coloring foods are:

ANTHOCYANINS, the cause of red, orange, purple and blue found in many fruits and flowers like roses, water henna, hibiscus, flower beads / kana, chrysanthemum, pelargonium, china aster, and apples, Chery, grapes, strawberries , also found in the mangosteen fruit and sweet potato tubers. Blue pea flowers, produces a purplish blue color. Star fruit flowers produce red color. The use of natural dyes, such as anthocyanin pigments are still limited to some food products, such as beverage products (juice and milk).

Anthocyanin is a derivative of a single aromatic structure, namely cyanidin. Anthocyanin is flavonoids that structurally include in flavone group. Anthocyanins are natural antioxidants that can prevent cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure, cataracts, and even smoothing the skin.
Anthosianin pigment color red, blue, violet and are usually found on flowers, fruits and vegetables. The pigments color are influenced by the concentration of pigment, and pH. At dilute concentrations, anthocyanin is blue, in contrast to the dense concentration, the color is red and at usual concentration is purple. At low pH anthocyanin pigment is red and at high pH changed to violet and then to blue.

BIKSIN, giving yellow like butter. Biksin obtained from the seeds of Bixa Orellana tree found in tropical areas and is often used to color butter, margarine, corn oil and salad dressings.

CARAMEL, is dark brown and a result of the hydrolysis (breakdown) of carbohydrates, sugar, lactose, and malt syrup. Caramel consists of three types, namely acid resistant caramel that is often used for carbonated beverages, tea and apple cider, caramel liquid for bread and biscuits, and dried caramel. Coconut sugar which in addition to functioning as a sweetener, also gave brownish red color of the drink coconut ice or ice cendol

CHLOROPHYLL, producing a green color, was obtained from the leaves. Widely used for food. Nowadays even begin to be used in a variety of health products. Chlorophyll pigments found in many leaves (eg suji leaves, pandanus, katuk/ Sauropus androgynus and etc). Suji and pandanus leaves, leaf green katuk as a producer for various types of pastry snacks. In addition to producing a beautiful green color, also has a distinctive aroma.

Chlorophyll is a natural green pigment commonly found in the leaves, so it is often called the green dye. The dye is often associated with fresh vegetables or not yet ripe in fruit. There are 2 types of chlorophyll that has been isolated : chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. They occur in plants with a ratio of 3: 1.

CAROTENE, produces an orange color to red. Typically used to color the oil products and cooking oils and fats such as margarine. Can be obtained from carrots, papaya and so forth. Carotene is an orange photosynthetic pigment important in photosynthesis. This substance forms the orange in carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. It was instrumental in photosynthesis by funneling the light energy that he absorbed into chlorophyll. In biochemistry, carotene is in terpene group, synthesized biochemically from eight isoprene units.

CURCUMIN, derived from turmeric as one of the herbs as well as giving the yellow color in the dish that we make. Curcumin is the active compound found in turmeric, a polyphenol. Curcumin has two tautomeric forms: ketone and enol. Ketone structure is more dominant in solid form, whereas the enol structure is found in liquid form. Curcumin is a compound that interacts with boric acid produces a red compound called rososiania.

Manufacture of natural colorant is actually very easy. The materials can be used as a natural dye can be grounded, can also use a regular blender or a mortar with a little added water, then squeezed and filtered with a filter. To make the color brighter can be added a little lime or lemon juice. After obtained dye filtrate, you can store it in the refrigerator or freezer if you want stored longer.

If the dye is derived from coconut sugar which is also used as a sweetener, then select a good quality palm sugar so it does not need to filter, then dissolved in cold water or hot water if you want fast. Meanwhile, to make a green dye combinations as well as fragrances can be used suji and pandanus leaves. Both were at once crushed with a little water, wring it out, then strain.

How to Get Obtain Concentrated Liquid Pigments

The equipment needed for the process of concentration include:
1. petroleum ether (PE)
2. filter paper
3. vacuum filters
4. vacuum evaporator (to evaporate the solvent)
5. refrigerator

Preparation :
  • Extracts obtained from simple extraction (such as infusion or percolation) then filter it using vacuum filtered in order to accelerate the separation between pigments and waste materials.
  • Filtration : Filter it using filter paper.
  • Add 2% petroleum ether, to separate the anthocyanin pigment and non-anthocyanin materials
  • Take the colors that exist in petroleum ether and then evaporated with a vacuum evaporator with a temperature of 40-50 C.
  • Generated more concentrated pure pigment.

How to Get Powdered Pigment

Making the pigment powder is done by adding a filler material such as starch, dextrin or gum arabic and used tool called spray drier.

Preparation :
  • Dyes are extracted with petroleum ether mixed with dextrin (10-30%)
  • then put in a spray dryer with inlet temperature 100 - 1100C and outlet temperature 50 - 600C.
  • machine with a vacuum pump is turned on in order to reduce pigment damage by oxygen.
  • The resulting powder pigment is packed with dark plastic (aluminum foil) and stored in a place that is not humid.
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