Diarrhea is the leading cause of death in children in the world, accounting for 50-10 million deaths / year. How diarrhea occurs? Diarrhea occurs because the amount of more bad bacteria than good bacteria. In children often found diarrhea caused by food sources that are less hygienic and dirt contamination.

Microorganisms that benefit the body or bacteria known as probiotics are not only useful for maintaining digestive health. Probiotics can also be used as a drug used to treat diarrhea. Probiotics are beneficial non-pathogenic bacteria that live in colonies in the small intestine and can cause changes in gut microflora and affect the metabolic activity with a favorable outcome for the hosts.

Treatment of diarrhea with the use of good bacteria, is relatively rare, Though using probiotics to treat diarrhea safer and better than using chemical drugs or antibiotic. Besides treating diarrhea, efficacious probiotic to streamline and improve other digestive disorders like constipation.

Bacteria Used as Prebiotics

Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in general is non-pathogenic bacteria, because they are naturally present in the gut. Not all acid-resistant bacteria have probiotic effects. Multiple strains of probiotics is more effective than single strains.

Lactobacillus GG isolated from man, stable against stomach acid and bile, and have the ability colonizes the human gut. Antimicrobial materials produced by Lactobacillus GG may control the proliferation of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. This strain has been used successfully in the treatment of relapsing colitis due to Clostridium difficile.

Feeding with fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus acidophilus may produce imunostimulation on the host by activating macrophages and lymphocytes. This is related to material produced by these organisms during the fermentation process of some materials metabolites, peptides and enzymes.

Probiotic sources can be obtained from fermented milk products, cottage cheese, cow's milk, juice or milk powder fortified with probiotics. While a pure probiotic preparations may be tablets, capsules or granules.

Benefits of Probiotics for Humans

In children with malnutrition, acute diarrhea causing drastic changes in microflora balance, in the case of fermented products that can help re-colonization.

Supplement of probiotics in food daily is an effective way to reduce the fever, the incidence of flu and cough, and decreased duration of antibiotic uses, at the age of 3-5 years.

Other conditions that can be addressed with probiotics include chronic diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and food allergies, and can prevent a worse condition, than travelers diarrhea and NEC into urogenital infections, atopic diseases and dental caries.
Infant formulas containing Bifidobacterium lactis or Lactobacillus reuteri, can decrease the risk of diarrhea, respiratory symptoms, fever and other abnormalities. On a long-term studies indicate that probiotics are used for several months in infants is safe and when used for several years in the general population.

Probiotics Mechanism of Action In Human Body

In the human gastrointestinal tract, probiotics induce colonization and can grow in situ in the stomach, duodenum and ileum. In the epithelium of human ileum, these microorganisms can induce immunomodulatory activity, including the taking of CD4 + T helper cells. Probiotics induce the immune system, mucin production, down regulation of inflammatory responses, secretion of antimicrobial agents, intestinal permeability settings, preventing adhesion of pathogenic bacteria in the mucosa, stimulation of immunoglobulin production and other mechanisms of probiotics.

The enzyme will produce lactic acid bacteria that can affect the host's metabolic processes. Yogurt has a high lactase activity, which can help the state of lactose malabsorption. During the fermentation process of milk, in general, the microorganisms will use lactose as a substrate. The result, the concentration of lactose in yogurt will be lower than unfermented milk. Lactose malabsorption may affect the mechanism of diarrhea by producing an intraluminal osmotic pressure pushing the water and electrolytes into the lumen of the intestine, a result that is not absorbed carbohydrates can lead to bacterial colonization in the small intestine.

Probiotic bacteria prevent feces adhesions in the colon wall by coating the intestinal wall so that the dirt is easy to move downward. Good bacteria in the gut also increases the destruction process becomes softer dirt so easily removed.

Dose Use of Probiotics
Depending on the estimated population of normal bacteria. Lactobacilli population was 10 ^ 6, while bifidobacteria are 10 ^ 8. But it is the manufacturers exaggerate the numbers 2-3 log (rank 10) to anticipate the damage caused by upper gastrointestinal (stomach).

The recommended dose of probiotics is 10 ^ 7 to 10 ^ 9. To bacteria Lactobacillus approximately 10 ^ 6. If we give less than that, then the balance is not achieved meaningful can not be called probiotics. Therefore, the probiotic Lactobacillus preparation is generally given at a dose of 10 rank 7 to rank 9.

To Dialac ® containing heat-killed bacteria, was rather different. The difference, the calculated amount (10 ^ 10) is at the time of fermentation and cell preparation Tyndallized. Moreover, because the bacteria has been turned off, then it will not proliferate until it reaches the target. In contrast to live bacteria that can still be increasing in number at the time of reaching the target cells. Of course this also take into account the presence of some bacteria that die on the journey before it reaches the target.

What is the mechanism : dead lactobacillus can be used for diarrhea?

Although it has been turned off, probiotics Tyndallized still contains some important substances such as bacteriocins, peptidoglycan, etc.. Bacteriocins are polypeptides (proteins) which is antibacterial produced by certain strains. This component is generated during production (fermentation) of probiotics. After fermentation is completed followed by tyndalization / heating probiotic cells. In the manufacture of probiotic products tyndallized all components produced during fermentation (bacteriocins, as well as an antibacterial agent such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide) to be included in the product tyndallized. This has resulted in similar potency between probiotic tyndallized and life probiotic. When tyndallized probiotic is consumed it is no longer the case in cell growth in the host digestive tract because the cell is dead, but all components are produced by cells during fermentation (bacteriocins, and antimikrobia others) as well as the compilers of the cell wall (peptidoglycan) contained in the product still play a role in providing health effects on the host.