Interfacial Polymerization (IFP)

In Interfacial polymerization, the two reactants in a polycondensation meet at an interface and react rapidly. The basis of this method is the classical Schotten-Baumann reaction between an acid chloride and a compound containing an active hydrogen atom, such as an amine or alcohol, polyesters, polyurea, polyurethane. Under the right conditions, thin flexible walls form rapidly at the interface. A solution of the pesticide and a diacid chloride are emulsified in water and an aqueous solution containing an amine and a polyfunctional isocyanate is added. Base is present to neutralize the acid formed during the reaction. Condensed polymer walls form instantaneously at the interface of the emulsion droplets.

In situ polymerization

Like IFP the capsule shell formation occurs because of polymerization monomers added to the encapsulation reactor. In this process no reactive agents are added to the core material, polymerization occurs exclusively in the continuous phase and on the continuous phase side of the interface formed by the dispersed core material and continuous phase. Initially a low molecular weight prepolymer will be formed, as time goes on the prepolymer grows in size, it deposits on the surface of the dispersed core material there by generating solid capsule shell. E.g. encapsulation of various water immiscible liquids with shells formed by the reaction at acidic pHof urea with formaldehyde in aqueous media. . In one process, e.g. Cellulose fibers are encapsulated in polyethylene while immersed in dry toluene. Usual deposition rates are about 0.5ìm/min. Coating thickness ranges 0.2-75 µm(0.0079-2.95 mils). The coating is uniform, even over sharp projections.

Matrix Polymerization

In a number of processes, a core material is imbedded in a polymeric matrix during formation of the particles. A simple method of this type is spray-drying, in which the particle is formed by evaporation of the solvent from the matrix material. However, the solidification of the matrix also can be caused by a chemical change.

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