Tablet manufacturing by direct compression (DC) has increased steadily over the years. It offers advantages over other manufacturing processes, such as wet granulation, and provides high efficiency. The choice and selection of binders is extremely critical for Direct Compression tablets.

It must fulfill certain requirements:
  • good binding functionality
  • powder flowability
  • exhibit adequate powder compressibility
  • has good compression behavior : volume reduction under applied pressure and flow behavior in order to have optimum binding performance.
  • a well-designed particle size distribution provides favorable mixing conditions;
  • compatibility with other excipients or drugs is also essential,
  • ability to carry high amounts of active ingredient. 
Currently, only a few materials meet the criteria to allow their classification as DC binders.

Table 1 : Commonly Used DC Binders 

DC BindersClassManufacturer
Avicel (PH 101, PH 102) Microcrystalline Cellulose FMC Corporation
SMCC (50, 90) Silicified Microcrystalline Cellulose Penwest Pharmaceutical
UNI-PURE(DW) Partially Pregelatinized Starch National Starch  and Chemical
UNI-PURE (LD) Low density starch National Starch  and Chemical
DC Lactose DC lactose anhydrous Quest International Group
DI-TAB / A-TAB DC-Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Rhodia Inc.

Domino Specialty Ingredient
EM Industries

Table 2 : Characteristics of DC Binders

Flow Behavior DI TAB> SMCC(50) > DC Lactose , UNI PURE(DW) > Avicel (PH 101) > UNI PURE(LD)
Compressibility UNI PURE(LD) > SMCC(50) , Avicel(PH 101) > UNI PURE(DW) , DC Lactose > DI TAB
Crushing Strength UNI PURE(LD) > SMCC(50) > UNI PURE(DW) > Avicel(PH 101) > DC Lactose > DI TAB

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