Water in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry is the most widely used substance both for production (manufacture of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), intermediates, and finished dosage forms) and for washing equipment, containers, or vessels.

As a raw material, high purity water is unique in that it is the only component that must be produced by the manufacturer, because it is not available from a vendor in a ready-to-use form. Water does not exist in the pure form in nature as it has the ability to absorb, suspend or dissolve various compounds - these need to be removed to produce WPU.

The major factors for designing a purified water system include:
Capacity of purified water required
Water quality attributes
Selection of membrane

Pure Water System Configuration
1. Feed water
2. Pretreatment
3. Primary Treatment
4. Optional Polishing
5. Storage and Distribution



Water for Injection (WFI) SYSTEM comprises of
Multicolumn Distillation Plant
WFI Storage System
WFI Distribution Loop System
Pure Steam Generator

The pre-treatment system comprises of:
Pressure Filters, Activated Carbon Filters
D.M. Plant or Reverse Osmosis system (with Softner)
Ultra-Filtration system
UV Sterilizer
Storage and Distribution loop system

Purified Water System Design
Impurities
1. Ionic
2. Organic
3. Particulate
4. Microbiological
5. Gases

Processes for Suspended Solids Removal
1. Multi media filter
2. Disposable cartridge filter
3. Ultrafilter
4. Microfilter
5. Reverse osmosis
6. Submicron filter

Processes for Conductivity Reduction
1. Reverse Osmosis
2. Ion Exchange
ƒ regenerated on-site
ƒ regenerated off-site
3. Continuous Electrodeionization
4. Distillation

Processes for TOC Reduction
1. Activated carbon
2. Organic scavenger resin
3. Reverse Osmosis
4. Ultrafiltration
5. Ultraviolet oxidation (185 nm or medium pressure)
6. Distillation
7. Ozone

Processes for Microbial Control
1. Residual disinfectant
2. Ultraviolet light
3. Reverse osmosis
4. Distillation
5. Ultrafiltration
6. Submicron filtration
7. Ozone
8. Continuous heat