No matter how much time has passed, and fashion moods changed the way we use lipstick, its basic formula always remained the same. Lipstick is made of dyes and pigments in a fragranced oil-wax base that can easily be applied to our lips. Some of the few important properties of lipsticks are its color, opacity, fragrance, and dryness.

Lipstick Raw Materials 
Before making lipstick, ingredients must be chosen. The primary ingredients of every lipstick are waxes, oils, and pigments, but many other substances can be introduced into the mix that will enhance certain parts of the final product and add it some specific new features such as fragrance, longevity and gloss.

The wax used usually involves some combination of three types : beeswax, candelilla wax or the more expensive carnauba. Wax enables the mixture to be formed into the easily recognized shape of the cosmetic. Oils such as mineral, caster, lanolin, or vegetable are added to the wax.

Some of the most common secondary ingredients are preservatives (to ensure longer shelf life), alcohol (solvent for other substances), fragrance (oils and waxes can sometimes have their own smell and taste, which needs to be eliminated), antioxidant and others wide vaiety of other ingredients can also be included to make the substance smoother or glossy or to moisten the lips.

Lipstick tube
The tubes that hold lipstick range from inexpensive plastic dispensers for lip balms to ornate metal for lipsticks. Sizes are not uniform, but generally lipstick is sold in a tube 3 inches (7.6 cm) in length and about .50 inch (1.3 cm) in diameter. The tube has two parts, a cover and a base. The base is made up of two components, the twisting or sliding of which will push the lipstick up for application.

Description of Machinery in Lipstick Manufacturing 
  1. Mixing Machine
  2. Seizing Machine
  3. Grinding Machine: Tri-Roller Rolling Machine and Successive High speed Moleculized Instrument – wet model 
  4. Heating Mixing Machine for pearl ointment 
  5. Mold Sets 
  6. Filling Machine: Basic Type(conventional), Plate Type. Semi-Automatic Type, Fully Automatic Type 
  7. Mold Releasing Machine By Air Blowing Machine 
  8. Box Folding Machine 
  9. Cartoning Machine 
  10. Carton Tapping Machine 

Stability Testing in Cosmetic

Cosmetics are mixtures of chemicals that mostly aren’t supposed to react with each other.The purpose of stability testing cosmetic products is to ensure that a new or modified product meets the intended physical, chemical and microbiological quality standards, properties as well as functionality and aesthetics when stored under appropriate conditions.

Each manufacturer should design their own stability testing program such that it is economically reasonable and efficiently addresses the testing required. Thus, specific tests may be developed in order to address new or unusual technologies, or to be adapted to products having extended shelf lives. Stability tests can be conducted in real time or under accelerated conditions and should address the stability of a product under appropriate conditions of storage, transport and use.

There are times when you need to do stability testing. Here is most important times to conduct a stability test. 
  1. New prototypes. When you make a new formula and are satisfied with the way it performs, you’ll want to do a stability test to ensure that it will stay together. 
  2. New raw materials. Eevery time you have to change the fragrance, color, or other raw material in a formula, you’ll have to do a stability test to make sure there aren’t unacceptable changes (Also for new raw material source/or supplier). 
  3. New manufacturing procedure. Every changing in manufacturing process (e.g mixing time, temperature drying), do stability test. It could affect your formula. 
  4. New packaging. Cosmetic products change their look almost yearly so packaging is constantly being modified. You’ll have to determine if the formula continues to be compatible. Stability testing helps ensure that it is.

How do you stability test a cosmetic?
This is the basic format you can follow for conducting a cosmetic formula stability test.

  1. Make your batch. Calculate how much to make based on the number of samples you’ll be using for the test. Ideally, make 30-40% more than you’ll need. 
  2. Fill your samples. Ideally, you’ll have the correct packaging but don’t count on it. When appropriate, fill glass jars with the product along with the finished package. In stability testing, you want to do both glass and packaging if possible. The number of samples depends on how much testing your doing but at minimum you should have 2 samples for each storage condition. 
  3. Take initial readings. Once you have a sample filled test it for all the characteristics you’re going to evaluate later.
  4. Put samples at different conditions. Stability testing requires different temperature and light conditions.
  5. Evaluate the product. Samples should be evaluated at the following intervals. 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and 52 weeks. Only the RT, 37C and 4C samples will be evaluated after one year. The highest temperature samples and the light exposed samples only need to be evaluated for the first three test intervals. The evaluation tests should be the same ones you conducted when taking your initial readings. 
  6. Determine stability. After 8 weeks you can confidently decide whether your formula is stable or not. 


How to Prevent Contamination in Cosmetic Products? Why cosmetic products need to be preserved?

Cosmetic products become easily contaminated by bacteria, fungi and other microbes. Containing water, oils, peptides, and carbohydrates cosmetics are a very good medium for growth of microbes.

And these tiny organisms bring with them some distasteful product changes or even disease. You typically would adding preservatives to your formulas. You have to know which preservatives are highly regulated and restricted ingredients.

Why you need cosmetic preservatives 

Preservation of cosmetic products is important to ensuring their safety and shelf stability. There are two primary reasons you need preservatives.
1. To stop microbes from spoiling your products.
2. To stop microbes from causing disease and infection of the skin.

The microbes that can infect your formulas primarily include bacteria, mold, and yeast. In small quantities they don’t represent much of a problem but when they multiply, look out. Bacteria like Pseudomonas can cause all kinds of health problems including skin and eye infections, toxic shock, strep throat, and even food poisoning. Yeast like Candida albicans can cause thrush. And many other bacteria can cause your products to smell awful, change color or otherwise break down.

In addition to natural and chemical preservatives, pH adjustment can be used to keep cosmetics germ-free. It is important to note, however, that very high or low pH values that keep microbial growth at bay may prove irritating to the skin or mucous membranes.


Not all materials used in cosmetic products are safe. There are so many harmful ingredients incosmetic and personal care products, even baby product. In fact, not all the materials used are listed in the label. Identify the hazardous materials and where possible, avoid the use of products containing these harmful substances.

1. Parabens (methylparaben, butylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylparaben, ethylparaben)

Used in makeup, moisturizers, shampoos, deodorants etc. May interfere with hormone function. Associated with breast cancer. Widely used even though they are known to be toxic.

Used as : Parabens are the most widely used preservative in cosmetics. They are also used as fragrance ingredients. Not always labeled. An estimated 75 to 90 per cent of cosmetics contain parabens.

Health Hazard : Parabens are harmful because they easily penetrate the skin and are suspected of interfering with hormone function (endocrine disruption) causing hormone imbalance in female and early puberty. Parabens were detected in human breast cancer tissues, raising questions about a possible association between parabens in cosmetics and cancer. Parabens may also interfere with male reproductive functions. In addition, studies indicate that methylparaben applied on the skin reacts with UVB leading to increased skin aging and DNA damage.
Parabens in foods are metabolized when eaten, making them less strongly estrogenic. In contrast, when applied to the skin and absorbed into the body, parabens in cosmetics bypass the metabolic process and enter the blood stream and body organs intact.

2. DEA (Diethanolamine), MEA (Monoethanolamine) and TEA (Triethanolamine)

This foam booster found in creamy and foaming products such as moisturizer, shampoo. Can react to form cancer-causing nitrosamines. Harmful to fish and other wildlife.

 Used as : DEA and DEA compounds are used to make cosmetics creamy or sudsy. DEA also acts as a pH adjuster, counteracting the acidity of other ingredients. DEA is mainly found in moisturizers and sunscreens, while cocamide and lauramide DEA are found in soaps, cleansers, and shampoos. Industrial applications of DEA include its use in oil refineries to “scrub” hydrogen sulphide from process gas emissions.  

Health Hazards: DEA and its compounds is skin/eye irritation. Easily absorbed through skin to accumulate in body organs and brain. Exposure to high doses of these chemicals cause liver cancers and precancerous changes in skin and thyroid.

DEA compounds can also react with nitrites in cosmetics to form nitrosamines as a possible human carcinogen. Nitrites are sometimes added to products as anti-corrosive agents or can be present as contaminants. The degradation of some chemicals used as preservatives in cosmetics can release nitrites when the product is exposed to air.

3. PEGs (Polyethylene glycol)

Widely used in conditioners, moisturizers, deodorants, sunscreen etc even baby care. Dangerous levels of dioxin have been found as a by-product of the ethoxylation process.

Used as : PEGs are widely used in cosmetics as thickeners, solvents, softeners, penetration enhancer and moisture-carriers. PEGs are commonly used as cosmetic cream bases.

Health Hazards: Depending on manufacturing processes, PEGs can be contaminated with measurable amounts of ethylene oxide and 1,4-dioxane. Ethylene oxide known as human carcinogen and 1,4-dioxane as a possible human carcinogen. Ethylene oxide can also harm the nervous system and may interfere human development.

PEG compounds show some evidence of genotoxicity and if used on broken skin can cause irritation and systemic toxicity. Also, PEG functions as a “penetration enhancer,” increasing the permeability of the skin to allow greater absorption of the product — including harmful ingredients.