No matter how much time has passed, and fashion moods changed the way we use lipstick, its basic formula always remained the same. Lipstick is made of dyes and pigments in a fragranced oil-wax base that can easily be applied to our lips. Some of the few important properties of lipsticks are its color, opacity, fragrance, and dryness.

Lipstick Raw Materials 
Before making lipstick, ingredients must be chosen. The primary ingredients of every lipstick are waxes, oils, and pigments, but many other substances can be introduced into the mix that will enhance certain parts of the final product and add it some specific new features such as fragrance, longevity and gloss.

The wax used usually involves some combination of three types : beeswax, candelilla wax or the more expensive carnauba. Wax enables the mixture to be formed into the easily recognized shape of the cosmetic. Oils such as mineral, caster, lanolin, or vegetable are added to the wax.

Some of the most common secondary ingredients are preservatives (to ensure longer shelf life), alcohol (solvent for other substances), fragrance (oils and waxes can sometimes have their own smell and taste, which needs to be eliminated), antioxidant and others wide vaiety of other ingredients can also be included to make the substance smoother or glossy or to moisten the lips.

Lipstick tube
The tubes that hold lipstick range from inexpensive plastic dispensers for lip balms to ornate metal for lipsticks. Sizes are not uniform, but generally lipstick is sold in a tube 3 inches (7.6 cm) in length and about .50 inch (1.3 cm) in diameter. The tube has two parts, a cover and a base. The base is made up of two components, the twisting or sliding of which will push the lipstick up for application.

Description of Machinery in Lipstick Manufacturing 
  1. Mixing Machine
  2. Seizing Machine
  3. Grinding Machine: Tri-Roller Rolling Machine and Successive High speed Moleculized Instrument – wet model 
  4. Heating Mixing Machine for pearl ointment 
  5. Mold Sets 
  6. Filling Machine: Basic Type(conventional), Plate Type. Semi-Automatic Type, Fully Automatic Type 
  7. Mold Releasing Machine By Air Blowing Machine 
  8. Box Folding Machine 
  9. Cartoning Machine 
  10. Carton Tapping Machine 


Lipstick Manufacturing Process
In general, wax and oil make up about 60% of the lipstick (by weight), with alcohol and pigment accounting for another 25% (by weight). Fragrance is always added to lipstick, but accounts for 1% or less of the mixture.

The most common lipstick manufacturing procedure is done in four stages.

  1. Pigment milling, in which you chose desired pigment, or the combination of pigment and then carefully mix them. Then, pigment is melt with oils or other fat good. The granule uniformity and particle distribution will be grinding by grinder to get optimization. The formula put through three-roll mill which grind ever particle usually to the size of 20 microns. Common ration of oil and pigment is 2 to 1 particles. 
  2. Combination of pigment phase into base wax is done with simple mixing of those liquids in a steam-jacketed kettle that is equipped with one propeller agitator. After successful mixing, resulting liquid is again put through three-roll mill and usually grinded down to particle sizes of 20 microns. Perfume will be mixed within the paste phase under certain temperature and continuous agitating. 
  3. Molding. Once the lipstick mass is mixed and free of air, it is ready to be poured into the tube. Molding is done at specific temperatures to eliminate certain unwanted products of fast cooling. Lipsticks liquid that is heated to around 80 C is poured into vertical split molds that are kept at temperature of around 35 C. To prevent formation of air bubbles in the molds, manufacturers often use slightly tilted molds or use vacuuming to forcefully extract any air. A variety of machine setups are used, depending on the equipment that the manufacturer has, but high volume batches are generally run through a melter that agitated the lipstick mass and maintains it as a liquid. For a smaller, manually run batches, the mass is maintained at the desired mix temperature, with agitation, in a melter controlled by an operator. 
  4.  Resulting lipstick is cooled down, extracted from the molds and prepared for flaming (passing of the sticks near one or several open flame torches or flaming cabinet that will meltsmall layer of gloss around lipsticks). This procedure will ensure better visual appearance of the lipstick, and protection from outside air and influences (lipsticks can become rancid after prolonged exposure to air, moisture and heat). 
  5. Packaging and labeling is done with the requirements of the manufacturers of brand owner. After the lipstick is retracted and the tube is capped, the lipstick is ready for labeling and packaging. Labels identify the batch and are applied as part of the automated operation. There are a variety of packaging options available, ranging from bulk packs, and including packaging as a component in a makeup kit or special promotion offering. Packaging for lipstick varied, depending on what will happen at the point of sale in the retail outlet. Packaging may or may not be highly automated, and the package used depends on the end use of the product rather than on the manufacturing process. 

PIC (Process in Control) 

Air Bulb removing, There are many chances to crease air bulb within the paste during melting, mixing, and agitating.

The method of de-gas from the paste is set the paste without moving for certain time for enable the light weight air bulb floating up to the surface of paste form material.

Therefore, the bottom portion of the paste material will be applied as material to fill the lipstick molds. However, please care of the powder, color agent or particle sediment from the paste.

Quality Control in Lipstick Manufactruring

Lipstick product must meet FDA standards. Lipstick is the only cosmetic ingested, and because of this strict controls on ingredients, as well as the manufacturing processes, are imposed. Lipstick is mixed and processed in a controlled environment so it will be free of contamination. Incoming material is tested to ensure that it meets required specifications. Samples of every batch produced are saved and stored at room temperature for the life of the product to maintain a control on the batch.

Color control of lipstick is critical. The dispersion of the pigment is checked stringently when a new batch is manufactured, and the color must be carefully controlled when the lipstick mass is reheated. The color of the lipstick mass will bleed over time, and each time a batch is reheated, the color may be altered. Colorimetric equipment is used to provide some numerical way to control the shades of lipstick.

There are two special test for lipstick :
  1. The Heat Test. Lipstick is placed in the extended position in a holder and left in a constant temperature oven of over 130 degrees Fahrenheit (54 degrees Celsius) for 24 hours. There should be no dropping or distortion of the lipstick.
  2. The Rupture Test.  Lipstick is place in two holders, in the extended position. Weight is added to the holder on the lipstick potion at 30-second intervals until the lipstick ruptures. The pressure required to rupture the lipstick is then checked against the manufacturer’s standards.

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